VET VISIT Pet nu­tri­tion myth­bust­ing by Em­manuel D. Ma­ca­pa­gal, DVM


Animal Scene - - CONTENTS - DVM V. MA­CA­PA­GAL, Text by EM­MANUEL

In or­der to un­der­stand stone for­ma­tion, we must ex­plain very ac­cu­rately the main rea­sons or causes for stone­for­ma­tion known in ve­teri­nary medicine as urolithi­a­sis. First, there is a physico-chem­i­cal (phys­i­cal) ex­pla­na­tion: Have you ever seen ! " ! # set­tles down at the bot­tom of the cup af­ter some time? That’s the phys­i­cal as­pect of crystal for­ma­tion of urine. The liq­uid por­tion is the sol­vent. The solid part is the solute. If there were much sol­vent (liq­uid), the like­li­hood of sed­i­ment for­ma­tion (crys­tal­liza­tion) is un­likely. That sim­ply means that giv­ing lots of wa­ter to drink to our pets both dog and cats have huge im­pli­ca­tions as to whether they will form blad­der stones or not. The chem­i­cal as­pect is trick­ier in that you need to ac­count for con­cen­tra­tion of crys­tal­liz­ing ions. This means you need to ac­count for things like !$ # % and sol­vents). This may ex­as­per­ate my read­ers. It’s quite com­pli­cated: & na­ture of crys­tals, their ph or “acid­ity” are to be con­sid­ered. The de­gree of su­per­sat­u­ra­tion # nu­cle­ation, growth, and ag­gre­ga­tion-the per­fect storm of urine crystal for­ma­tion. (Ref­er­ence: France, Yann Queau, Vince Biourge. Uri­nary Rel­a­tive Su­per­sat­u­ra­tion and Urolithi­a­sis risk. Ve­teri­nary Fo­cus. 2014. Vol.24, Is­sue num­ber three pp. 24-29).

a. The in­fec­tion-in­duced, vis­i­ble by x-ray di­ag­nos­tics stone (mag­ne­sium, am­mo­nium, phos­phate or MAP stone; stru­vite). In this case, there was ev­i­dence of bac­te­rial in­fec­tion in dogs as is seen in the urine cul­ture, al­ka­line urine. Very often, vet­eri­nar­i­ans would ad­vise the me­chan­i­cal re­moval of stones in case of ob­struc­tion, by retro­propul­sion or hy­dropropul­sion, or ini­ti­ate med­i­cal dis­so­lu­tion pro­to­col with the use of an­tibi­otics, or a dis­so­lu­tion diet, or pro­mote wa­ter con­sump­tion. In the case of stru­vite, the ph of urine is usu­ally al­ka­line. Of­ten­times, the case is pre­sented with cases of ' " % * ex­pe­ri­ence, I have to per­form surgery upon see­ing that the stone was oc­cu­py­ing a large part of the blad­der, mak­ing an an­i­mal uri­nate again and again (in­con­ti­nence). Af­ter ra­dio­graphs, I de­cided to per­form the surgery in the blad­der since the stone " % & b.ox­alate urolithi­a­sis are stones that are vis­i­ble by x-ray and are found to be present in acidic urine. These when found can be treated by re­moval through sur­gi­cal means as in the & above. In the ab­sence of Lower uri­nary tract signs vet­eri­nar­i­ans will usu­ally in­sti­tute pre­ven­tive mea­sures by pro­mot­ing wa­ter con­sump­tion, re­strict di­etary ox­alate, sodium, pro­tein if + / & (Faunt, Karen K. Ox­alate Uroliths. Clin­i­cal Ve­teri­nary Ad­vi­sor. (pp.1588-1589). Mo.mosby El­se­vier. ©2007 A uri­nal­y­sis is a group of man­ual and/or au­to­mated qual­i­ta­tive and semi-quan­ti­ta­tive tests per­formed on a urine sam­ple. Urine ph must be in be­tween the nor­mal lim­its 6.5-7.2, & / 34 8 At this point, hope­fully, ox­alate stones would have dis­solved. c. The ge­netic con­nec­tion. Dal­ma­tians are very prone to urate stone for­ma­tion ow­ing to & # purine me­tab­o­lism lead­ing to urate stone for­ma­tion. Per­haps in the cat such a ge­netic mu­ta­tion has not been es­tab­lished.

d. Con­gen­i­tal (upon birth) or ac­quired (sec­ondary to a med­i­cal con­di­tion) por­to­vas­cu­lar anom­alies pre­dis­pose dogs to urate stone-for­ma­tion. To clear things up, con­gen­i­tal does not mean ge­netic. Con­gen­i­tal means oc­cur­ring upon birth "! & means dic­tated by DNA and has an in­her­i­tance pat­tern

e. Other breeds thought of hav­ing a DNA mu­ta­tion in­clude the English Bull­dog, Black Rus­sian ter­rier, and the York­shire ter­rier. In or­der to con­clude a ge­netic ten­dency, a ge­netic test must be done for non-dal­ma­tian car­ri­ers. This makes sense when you are a breeder or in­tend to be one. (Villaverde, C.2014. Urates in Blad­der dis­­teri­nary Fo­cus 24 (1). pp.10-14.

f. The di­etary as­pect. Pro­tein con­tent and type weighs in too. ASL al­ready pointed out that amount of pro­tein matters, as does pro­tein type. A low pro­tein diet that has low purines is help­ful. Please con­sult / 9 ! & ! & ! # / ! ! < $ = > & ! ! ! ! in purines. Dairy, egg, fats, bread, oils, grains, fruits, and most veg­eta­bles have low purine con­tent. This type of stone for­ma­tion must be mon­i­tored ev­ery 3-6 months. Please re­mem­ber that the ! $ > % & % a com­pe­tent vet­eri­nar­ian is non-ne­go­tiable. Self-med­i­cat­ing your pets with­out the nec­es­sary knowl­edge in prop­erly treat­ing these con­di­tions en­dan­gers your pets. Dogs are om­ni­vores and there­fore eat any­thing. The cat, on the other hand, is a strict / = + & your pet’s health and well-be­ing.

(Part Three; Part One ap­peared in the May 2018 is­sue and Part Two ap­peared in the June is­sue of An­i­mal Scene)

Dal­ma­tians are prone to uri­nary stones

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