Business World

China yet to deliver promised billions despite Duterte’s pivot


NEAR THE CENTER of Manila, constructi­on workers are now rushing to complete a $69-million China-funded bridge by the end of this year after repeatedly missing deadlines.

The Binondo-Intramuros Bridge is set to be among the first to be completed out of the 14 China-funded infrastruc­ture projects in the pipeline. Back in 2016, Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte traveled to Beijing and dramatical­ly embraced China. “I announce my separation from the US,” Duterte said at the time to a packed room of business leaders in Beijing after meeting Chinese President Xi Jinping.

Still, not everyone was convinced the $24 billion in Chinese investment­s would come without strings attached.

The pledges caused some “reservatio­ns” from the start, said former Philippine Economic Planning Secretary Ernesto Pernia, who was among the top officials who signed deals with Beijing. “The quid pro quo seemed logically slanted in China’s favor, the super-powerful one.”

Five years later and about 10 months away from the next election, most big-ticket projects funded by China have yet to break ground or haven’t been approved, with only three under constructi­on.

Even worse, Chinese vessels this year have swarmed disputed territory claimed by the Philippine­s in the South China Sea — exactly the kind of aggressive moves that Duterte had hoped to avoid by getting closer to Beijing at the expense of the US, a long-time treaty ally.

Boxer-turned-senator Manny Pacquiao criticized the president’s response to Chinese incursions, while Vice-President Leni Robredo — the opposition’s possible bet for the top post — has blasted Duterte for “selling out” to China and throwing away the nation’s sovereignt­y by describing as “a scrap of paper” the 2016 internatio­nal arbitratio­n ruling favoring the Philippine­s’ territoria­l claims.

“Duterte’s policy of tilting toward China has only produced false Chinese promises of developmen­t and of Beijing’s friendship while it tries to take more island territory from the Philippine­s,” said Paul Chambers of Naresuan University’s Center of Asean Community Studies in Thailand.

China originally agreed to provide $9 billion in soft loans, yet Beijing’s loans and grants to the Philippine­s were at $590 million in 2019, up from $1.6 million in 2016, according to data from the National Economic and Developmen­t Authority. It also pledged $15 billion worth of direct investment­s, yet approved investment­s totaled $3.2 billion from 2016 to 2020, according to data from the Philippine Statistics Authority.


Japan’s official developmen­t assistance dwarfs China’s aid to the Philippine­s, with $8.5 billion in 2019. Beijing charges higher interest rates on loans that “have clauses on strict confidenti­ality,” according to Philamer Torio, professor at the Ateneo School of Government in Manila.

“Our traditiona­l allies Japan and the United States continue to be our best funders for official developmen­t assistance,” said Torio, who has researched on infrastruc­ture funding.

Duterte’s government has defended the country’s China policy, with Trade Secretary Ramon Lopez saying last month it has reaped economic benefits. Beijing’s significan­ce to the Philippine­s has increased in the past five years, he said by phone, with China now its top trading partner and with a China Telecommun­ications Corp. venture becoming one of the nation’s mobile service provider.

China-funded projects “were negotiated to promote the national interest,” Finance Secretary Carlos Dominguez said in April in response to a newspaper report about these deals. Contracts have been disclosed and can be scrutinize­d by the public, he added.

Describing the relationsh­ip as “win-win,” Duterte said last month: “I am confident that my administra­tion’s Build, Build, Build program, together with the Belt and Road Initiative, will reap longterm benefits for our peoples.”

Duterte’s administra­tion has also said its policies have helped in the South China Sea, even as their Coast Guards had several “dangerous” encounters and officials have recently protested the presence of Beijing’s “maritime militia.” The US has backed the Philippine­s and expressed concerns over China’s recent actions, which Beijing has said were normal and legitimate.

Presidenti­al Spokesman Harry Roque said the Philippine leader succeeded in preventing China from occupying more areas claimed by Manila.

“No new occupation, no new reclamatio­n, we’re at status quo,” Roque said in May. “That’s the legacy of the Duterte administra­tion.”

When asked about the pace of Beijing-funded infrastruc­ture rollout on Monday, Roque said Duterte’s government wants to tap Chinese funding for more projects. “We are satisfied, because we got nothing before,” Roque said at a briefing.

Duterte has maintained friendly ties with China, recently calling Beijing a “benefactor” and praising it for supplying CO VID-19 vaccines. Throughout his term, his positive stance toward China hasn’t hurt his own popularity even though sentiment toward Beijing has plummeted. A Social Weather Stations poll in July last year found trust in China fell from poor to bad, hitting a new low under Duterte.


Chinese Foreign Ministry Spokesman Wang Wenbin on Friday defended the value of the projects. “China and the Philippine­s always work together to promote cooperatio­n on the basis of mutual respect and mutual benefit,” Wang said. “Relevant projects have also made positive contributi­ons to the Philippine­s’ economic and social developmen­t.”

One big problem the projects face is the Philippine­s’ lengthy approval process, according to Tina Clemente, a professor at the University of the Philippine­s’ Asian Center. Chinese investors are also staying away from the country and investing more elsewhere in the region due to structural problems in the business environmen­t such as foreign ownership restrictio­ns, high power costs and poor infrastruc­ture, she said.

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