BRAIN-BASED PEDAGOGY IN K-12 ED­U­CA­TION

Sun.Star Pampanga - - PERSPECTIVE! -

The au­thor is Teacher Distr ict

WARLITO M. FLORES

Chang­ing de­mo­graph­ics and kinder­garten through 12 school re­form ini­tia­tives, such as the re­cently leg­is­lated, En­hanced Ba­sic Ed­u­ca­tion Act of 2013 (EBEA 2013) have re­in­forced the need to bet­ter com­pre­hend the course and meth­ods of lear ning and how best to teach a va­ri­ety or di­ver­sity of learn­ers. One is­sue that con­tin­ues and re­mains to resur face is how best to de­liver in­for­ma­tion and fa­cil­i­tate learn­ing for the stu­dent.

Br ain-Based Learn­ing ex­per ts like Guar ino, Hami lton, Lock­wood, and Rath­bun looked at the ef­fect of teacher qual­i­fi­ca­tions and prac­tices on achieve­ment in read­ing and math­e­mat­ics among kinder­garten stu­dents. They found that en­gag­ing stu­dents in ac­tiv­i­ties such as read­ing aloud or show­ing how to solve a prob­lem were among the teach­ing strate­gies as­so­ci­ated with im­proved test scores. Fur­ther­more, tak­ing four or six or more cour­ses in teach­ing meth­ods was as­so­ci­ated with greater use of stu­dent-cen­tred in­struc­tional prac­tices. Yet in a 2008 sur­vey of teach­ing prac­tices of fac­ulty teach­ing un­der­grad­u­ates, 83% in­di­cated lec­ture/ dis­cus­sion as their pri­mary teach­ing strat­egy (Chen, 2002). Now in ques­tion is whether col­lege of ed­u­ca­tion facul ty are role-mod­el­ling the most ef­fec­tive ped­a­gog­i­cal and inst ruct ional meth­ods for fu­ture K-12 teach­ers.

Best prac­tices in ed­u­ca­tion have emerged from nu­mer­ous theor ies: cog­ni­tive learn­ing the­ory metacog­ni­tion, mul­ti­ple in­tel­li­gences, and adult learn­ing the­ory. The field of cog­ni­tive and ed­u­ca­tional psy­chol­ogy has formed the ma­jor­ity of th­ese theor ies early and they even­tu­ally evolved into neu­ro­bi­ol­ogy, bi­ol­ogy of cog­ni­tion, ed­u­ca­tion and be­havioural theor ies, and the­o­ries of learn­ing. This ar­ti­cle ad­vo­cates a the­ory-based process of el­e­ments from The­ory of De­lib­er­ate Con­duct (TDC). TDC has been suc­cess­fully used in many con­texts, es­pe­cially in health­care. Cog­ni­tive psy­chol­o­gists cre­ated a step-bystep process to choose hu­man-sub­ject char­ac­ter­is­tics to use in his stud­ies. This process was used in this ar­ti­cle as an eight-step process for ba­sic ed­u­ca­tion el­e­ments to fo­cus on in BRAIN-BASED IN­STRUC­TIONAL PEDAGOGY. Ac­cord­ing to ed­u­ca­tional psy­chol­o­gists, the TDC the­ory has be­come the most widely ap­plied in his field.

How­ever, in the real world of ba­sic ed­u­ca­tion, re­sources are very scarce to al­low cer­tain el­e­ments of in­ves­ti­ga­tion. There are not many stud­ies on brain­based lear ning and at­ti­tudes of teach­ers in brain-based learn­ing in ba­sic ed­u­ca­tion. Even if re­searchers with enough time were found to con­duct th­ese stud­ies, the cost of chang­ing ed­u­ca­tion and lack of com­plete­ness of analysing teach­ing tech­niques in higher ed­u­ca­tion classes would be pro­hib­i­tive. This lack of com­plete­ness is not it­self, a prob­lem; an anal­y­sis of a larger sam­ple can yield valu­able in­for­ma­tion. In draw­ing sam­ples from class­room el­e­ments ( i.e., lec­tures, dis­cus­sions, in­ter­ac­tions, tem­per­a­ture, en­vi­ron­ment, seat­ing, charts, mind-maps, field trips, role plays, and ex­pe­ri­ences within classes and the qual­ity of other sup­ports that im­pact stu­dents’ ex­pe­ri­ence of their learn­ing) , some fac­ulty may make in­struc­tional choices based on con­ve­nience, aca­demic pol­i­tics, per­sonal pref­er­ences, past ex­per iences, and other in­flu­ences that may, or my not, re­sult in the best form of learn­ing for each in­di­vid­ual.

Other fac­ulty may take a more rea­soned ap­proach, and turn to the re­search lit­er­a­ture for a bet­ter un­der­stand­ing of brain-based learn­ing. In do­ing so, they will find a mul­ti­tude of learn­ing strate­gies and styles, each with its own method­ol­ogy, its own pro­cesses and sug­ges­tions, and its own ideas about what the key el­e­ments of learn­ing are.

The eight-step process goes be­yond other meth­ods and theor ies be­cause it is easy to tai­lor to in­di­vid­ual needs and re­sources. It is “unique to in­sti­tu­tional needs” and it ben­e­fits many stake­hold­ers alike.

We, teach­ers, have to al­ways bear in mind that, in ed­u­ca­tion, the bot­tom line is stu­dent learn­ing and stu­dent achieve­ment. This is the main frame­work of BRAIN BASED IN­STRUC­TIONAL PEDAGOGY or any ped­a­gog­i­cal the­ory for that mat­ter. — oOo—

II at San Jose El­e­men­tary School, Ma­cabebe West

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