...I GET FOOD POISONING?
Most of us are all too familiar with the unpleasant symptoms of food poisoning, from vomiting to diarrhoea and debilitating stomach cramps. Although viruses play a role, bacteria are common offenders, with Salmonella and Campylobacter topping the poisonin
1. Bacteria enter
Some bacteria or enterotoxins (intestinal toxins) can survive harsh stomach conditions, making their way to the gut. There, the misery begins, sometimes up to 72 hours after eating the offending meal.
4. Flooded intestines
The intestinal wall is designed to absorb nutrients and water from food. Bacterial toxins can cause pores to open in the wall, allowing water and other molecules to flood in.
2. Bacteria multiply Undetected by the body’s immune system, the bacteria quietly multiply, producing toxins. These invade and penetrate the gut lining, setting off a strong immune response.
5. Diarrhoea and dehydration
The excess fluid and electrolytes in the gut lead to watery diarrhoea, which has a beneficial role of flushing out the bacteria and their toxins. It can, however, cause dehydration.
3. Immune response
Immune cells release signalling proteins called pro-inflammatory cytokines, which set in motion a series of steps causing gut inflammation and swelling, leading to discomfort.
Some bacteria don’t cause vomiting, but Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins do. Research suggests that they may stimulate the vagus nerve which transmits a signal to the brain’s vomiting centre.