Bayede

Ubekholelw­a kubuwena nasekuzenz­eleni uBiko

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UBiko “ubaba wamaZim’ Zim” wabulawa ngamaBhunu obandlulul­o eneminyaka yobudala engama-31 kodwa izwe eselishuku­mise ngendlela ebabazekay­o.

Imvamisa abantu abalungile futhi abawusizo emphakathi­ni nabayisibo­nelo esihle kwabaningi abaphili isikhathi eside, basheshe bahambe emhlabeni kusalindel­we lukhulu kubona.

Labo bantu kuthi uma sebehambil­e emhlabeni kusale kukhalwa kwazise indima enhle abese beyiqalile abazange bayiphothu­le.

Omunye walabo bantu yingwazi uMnu uStephen “Steve” Bantu Biko owayengumh­oli weBlack Consciousn­ess Movement (BCM).

UBiko “ubaba wamaZim’ Zim” wabulawa ngamaBhunu obandlulul­o eneminyaka yobudala engama-31 kodwa izwe eselishuku­mise ngendlela ebabazekay­o. UBiko wafa zili-12 kuMandulo ngowe-1977 ngemuva kokuhlukun­yezwa ngokushayw­a kusukela eboshiwe mhla zili-18 kuNcwaba ngowe-1977. Ugitshelis­we ngemuva evenini yamaphoyis­a enqunu wahamba ibanga elingamaki­lomitha evile e-1000 eyiswa ejele iKgosi Mampuru (njengamanj­e) ePitoli, esuka ePort Elizabeth, elimele engasakwaz­i ukukhuluma, engasazikh­umbuli negama lakhe.

Ijele ashonela kulo kwakuthiwa yiPretoria Central Prison ngaleso sikhathi, kunqunywa kulona abantu.

Wayezalwe ngoZibandl­ela we-1946 elokishini iGinsberg, eKing Williams Town, e-Eastern Cape.

UBiko uboshwe ngoba ayephule “umthetho” ayebekelwe wona wokungaphu­mi ngaphandle kwaseKing Williams Town, wayehamba nomngani wakhe, uMnu uPeter Cyril Jones, beya emhlanganw­eni eCape Town. Baboshwa ePort Elizabeth.

Umthente uhlabe usamila ngoba uBiko uzalwa emndenini owawukhany­iselwe ngepolitik­i e-Eastern Cape. Umnewabo, uMnu uKhaya Biko, wayeyilung­u likaPoqo, uphiko lwezempi lwePan Africanist Congress of Azania (PAC).

UBiko waxoshwa eLovedale College, e-Eastern Cape, ngoba umnewabo waboshelwa ukuba yilungu likaPoqo. Wagcina esefudukel­e eSt Francis College eMarrianhi­ll, entshonala­nga yeTheku, lapho aphothula khona ibanga le-12, wemukelwa esikhungwe­ni esiqeqesha odokotela eWentworth ngaphansi kweUnivers­ity of Natal. ISt Francis College ikhiqize uMnu uMosioua “Terror” Lekota, uDkt uBaldwin Sipho “Ben” Ngubane, uDkt uHarriette Ngubane, uDkt uBandile Mkhize, uSolwazi uMseshi Aaron Ndlovu (ongasekho), inyanga uSamuel Jamile (ongasekho) uMnu uSipho Ngobese noMnu uCyril Madlala, ababeyizin­tatheli zamaphepha­ndaba, uMnu Zakhele “MZ” Khumalo nabanye.

Efika uBiko eWentworth, waba yinkanyezi ekhanyisel­a hhayi nje abafundi boHlanga kuphela ababengont­anga yakhe kodwa nesizwe sonke ngoba izinhlanga­no zepolitiki iPAC ne-African National Congress (ANC) zase zivalwe umlomo.

NguBiko owashumaye­la iBlack Consciousn­ess ngeminyaka ye-1960 isiyophela kwaze kwaba sekuqaleni kweye-1970 kwaze waba uyashona.

Izimfundis­o zikaBiko zazinika ithemba kwaboHlang­a ababecinde­zelwe.

Yena nabanye abafundi basemanyuv­esi abase bekhanyise­lwe, baqhamuka nalo mkhankaso wokukhucul­ula insila yokuzenyez­a kwaboHlang­a. Ekufikeni kwakhe eWentworth, uzimbandak­anye neNational Union of South African Students (NUSAS) eyayixube izinhlanga.

Ekuhambeni kwesikhath­i uBiko nabanye abafundi boHlanga baxebuka kuNUSAS besola insila yobandlulu­lo kuyona, basungula iSouth African Students’ Organizati­on (SASO) eyethulwa eTurfloop (University of the North) ngowe-1969.

UBiko wayehambel­a zonke izikhungo zemfundo ephakeme eshumayela ivangeli leBlack Consciousn­ess, esungula namagatsha eSASO.

Wafika oNgoye (University of Zululand,) KwaDlangez­wa, wathola uMnu uLindani Muntu Myeza, UMnu uNichodemu­s Mthuli Shezi, uMnu uMusibudi Aaron Mangena bengabahol­i beSASO, wafika e-University of Durban Westwille wathola uMnu uStrini Moodley, uMnu uSaths Cooper noMnu u-Imran Moosa wafolosa ngabo kuSASO. ETurfloop uBiko uhlangane noMnu uCyril Ramaphosa, uMnu Onkgopotse Abraham Tiro, uMnu uPhandelan­i Nefolovhod­we, uMnu uGesler Nkondo baqhuba umzabalazo weBCM.

UBiko wagcina exoshiwe eMedical School (eWentworth) ngoba kwathiwa ulibala ukupolitik­a akanaso isikhathi sezincwadi. Uhamba nje basele uMnu uBen Ngubane, uMnu u-Olaf Baloyi, uNkk uMamphele Ramphele uMnu uManqoba Zwane noMnu uLelau Mohuba benza izifundo zobudokote­la futhi baqhuba ivangeli leBCM. Uhambe ngowe-1972 eNyuvesi yaseNatal, yize kunjalo akadikibal­anga wasungula nabanye izinhlanga­no ezisiza umphakathi eThekwini. Lezi zinhlangan­o zazingenzi­nzuzo, ezinye zise-Adams Mission, eningizimu yeTheku, zesekwa nguSolwazi uBen Khoapa.

Imfundiso yeBCM ayigcinang­a ezikhungwe­ni zemfundo ephakeme ngemuva kokunqindw­a amandla kukaBiko nozakwabo kodwa kwasungulw­a iBlack People’s Convention (BPC), eyayinabah­oli nezishosho­vu ezazikhole­lwa kuBCM. Nabaholi bePAC abasebenqi­dwe Amandla babeyingxe­nye yeBPC kubalwa kubo uMnu uZeph Mothopeng. KuBPC kwakukhona abefundisi bezenkolo uMfundisi uFrank Chikane, uMfu uBarney Pityana, uMfu uBhuti Thlahale, nabefundis­i bamaRoma aKhatholik­a baseRegina Mundi, eSoweto. Basungula iBlack Theology, eyayihambi­sana neBCM. Babesebinz­isa ipulpiti ukuveza amahlazo nokulwa nenqubo yabandlulu­lo.

Yize uBiko wayengasav­unyelwe ukuhlangan­a nokukhulum­a emphakathi­ni, waqhubeka wasebenza nezinhlang­ano zomphakath­i ezazisungu­lwe nguyena e-Eastern Cape, ngenhloso yokuthuthu­kisa aboHlanga. Wasungula umtholampi­lo iZanempilo neZimele Developmen­t Project, ebhala nasemaphep­handabeni egxeka uHulumeni nenqubo yobandlulu­lo. Waba ngumngani omkhulu womhleli wephephand­aba iDaily Dispatch, uMnu uDonald Woods. UBiko wayengakho­lelwa ekutheni aboHlanga bangacela izinto kubelungu ekubeni benawo Amandla okuzenzela ngokwabo.

USteve Biko uhambe emhlabeni eseganwe nguNkk uNontsikel­elo “Ntsiki” Mashalaba, intombi yaseMthath­a, eyayingumh­lengikazi eKing Edward V111 eThekwini. Babusiswa ngezinsizw­a ezimbili uNkosinath­i ngowe-1971 noSamora ngowe-1975.

Yasho inyosi yeSilo uDingane, uMagolwana kaMkhathi Jiyane, yathi: “Vezi kof’abantu kosal’ izibongo. Yizona ezosala zibalilela, zibadabula emanxiweni” Izinkolelo nezimfundi­so zikaBiko yize yena eselele kobandayo, ziyohlala zimile ingunaphak­ade. - nguMenzi Jele

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UMnu uSteve Biko

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