Colleen Con­sta­ble

CityPress - - Voices -

model. Cen­tral to fem­i­nist the­o­ries are two key pil­lars – the crim­i­nal jus­tice sys­tem and restora­tive jus­tice. Such ap­proaches should be sup­ported by the im­ple­men­ta­tion of other de­ter­rent strate­gies that draw from all eco­log­i­cal frame­works and have a mul­ti­dis­ci­plinary ap­proach.

A man’s per­pe­tra­tion of vi­o­lence can be de­creased through ev­i­dence-based in­ter­ven­tions. Step­ping Stones, a life skills train­ing pro­gramme, fa­cil­i­tates be­havioural change in men. They be­come good ci­ti­zens and bet­ter part­ners, friends and fathers as their propen­sity to com­mit vi­o­lence de­creases. Pro­grammes that re­duce ac­cess to al­co­hol have also showed an ef­fec­tive­ness in re­duc­ing vi­o­lence.

The im­ple­men­ta­tion of pri­mary preven­tion pro­grammes, such as Isola­bant­wana (Eye on the child), at com­mu­nity level to pre­vent abuse, ne­glect and ex­ploita­tion of chil­dren is crit­i­cal.

Pol­icy in­ter­ven­tions at a struc­tural level can fa­cil­i­tate so­ci­etal change that pro­duces pro­tec­tive bar­ri­ers against vi­o­lence.

Th­ese in­clude em­pow­er­ment pro­grammes and prop­erty rights pro­grammes, which have been shown to in­crease women’s re­la­tion­ships with power and re­duce vi­o­lence against them.

MEN’S IN­CLI­NA­TION TO­WARDS PER­PE­TRA­TION DE­CREASES

Women em­pow­er­ment pro­grammes, such as In­ter­ven­tion with Mi­cro­fi­nance for Aids and Gen­der Eq­uity, de­creased in­ti­mate part­ner vi­o­lence by 55%. Re­search in­di­cates that a woman’s own­er­ship of hous­ing and land can help her to leave an abu­sive re­la­tion­ship. Find­ings in Ecuador in­di­cate that “a woman’s share of a cou­ple’s wealth mea­sured by the value of fi­nan­cial and phys­i­cal as­sets was as­so­ci­ated with lower in­ti­mate part­ner vi­o­lence and, in Ghana, with lower emo­tional in­ti­mate part­ner vi­o­lence”.

In Tan­za­nia and Nicaragua, “landown­ing women faced less phys­i­cal and psy­cho­log­i­cal in­ti­mate part­ner vi­o­lence”. In Tan­za­nia, women’s land own­er­ship served as a “path­way for women’s eco­nomic em­pow­er­ment, and raised per­ceived sta­tus and re­spect of women”. The stud­ies also found that land and prop­erty rights minimised gen­der in­equal­ity.

Kenya has a women and prop­erty rights pro­gramme called Groots that works to re­duce vi­o­lence against women. The or­gan­i­sa­tion mon­i­tors women’s dis­in­her­i­tance, me­di­ates land dis­putes, refers un­re­solved cases to for­mal ad­ju­di­ca­tion mech­a­nisms and pro­motes TALK TO

US

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