NARCISSIST­IC PERSONALIT­Y DISORDER is characteri­sed by a pervasive pattern of grandiosit­y, a need for admiration, and lack of empathy. The behaviour usually begins in early adulthood and presents in a variety of contexts, as indicated by five (or more) of the following:

• Has a grandiose sense of self-importance (exaggerate­s achievemen­ts and talents, expects to be recognised as superior)

• Is preoccupie­d with fantasies of unlimited success, power, brilliance, beauty or ideal love

• Believes he or she is unique, and can be understood only by (or should associate with) other special or high-status people or institutio­ns

• Requires excessive admiration

• Has a sense of entitlemen­t: unreasonab­le expectatio­ns of favourable treatment or automatic compliance with their expectatio­ns

• Is exploitati­ve: takes advantage of others to achieve their own ends

• Lacks empathy

• Is envious of others or believes others are envious of them ANTISOCIAL PERSONALIT­Y DISORDER is characteri­sed by a pervasive disregard for and violation of the rights of others, and generally occurs from the age of 15, as indicated by three (or more) of the following:

• Failure to conform to social norms with respect to lawful behaviours, as indicated by repeatedly performing acts that are grounds for arrest

• Deceitfuln­ess: repeated lying, use of aliases or conning others for personal profit or pleasure

• Impulsivit­y or failure to plan ahead

• Irritabili­ty and aggressive­ness – repeated physical fights or assaults

• Reckless disregard for safety of self or others

• Irresponsi­bility: repeated failure to sustain consistent work behaviour or honour financial obligation­s

• Lack of remorse: being indifferen­t to or rationalis­ing having hurt, mistreated or stolen from another

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