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1681 The Treaty of Radzin ends a fiveyear war be­tween the Turks and the al­lied coun­tries of Rus­sia and Poland.

1745 Eng­land, Aus­tria, Sax­ony and the Nether­lands form an al­liance against Rus­sia.

1815 A rag-tag army un­der An­drew Jack­son de­feats the Bri­tish on the fields of Chal­mette in the Bat­tle of New Or­leans.

1871 Prus­sian troops be­gin to bom­bard Paris dur­ing the Franco-Prus­sian War.

1900 The Bo­ers at­tack the Bri­tish in Lady­smith, but are turned back.

1908 A sub­way line opens link­ing the New York bor­oughs of Brook­lyn and Man­hat­tan.

1922 About 22 000 min­ers on Wit­wa­ter­srand gold mines go on strike in what be­came known as the Rand Re­bel­lion.

1940 Great Bri­tain be­gins ra­tioning sugar, meat and but­ter.

1946 Pres­i­dent Harry S Tru­man vows to stand by the Yalta ac­cord on self­de­ter­mi­na­tion for the Balkans.

1951 Present UN head­quar­ters is opened in New York.

1954 Pres­i­dent Dwight D Eisen­hower pro­poses strip­ping con­victed com­mu­nists of their US cit­i­zen­ship.

1960 Con­struc­tion on the Aswan Dam starts in Egypt.

1963 Pres­i­dent John F Kennedy attends the un­veil­ing of the Mona Lisa.

1973 A wave of strikes hits Dur­ban and spreads coun­try­wide.

1975 Ella T Grasso be­comes Gover­nor of Con­necti­cut, the first fe­male gover­nor in the US who did not come into of­fice by suc­ceed­ing her hus­band.

1979 The US ad­vises the Shah to leave Iran. 1982 AT&T agrees to di­vest 22 sub­di­vi­sions as part of an an­titrust agree­ment.

1986 Lim­pet mine ex­plodes and dam­ages sub­sta­tion in Dur­ban.

1993 The ANC de­mands changes to fa­cil­i­tate demo­cratic elec­tions.

1994 Va­leri Polyakov, a Rus­sian cos­mo­naut, leaves earth bound for the Mir space sta­tion; he will spend a record 437 days in space.

2002 US Pres­i­dent Ge­orge W Bush signs into law the No Child Left Be­hind Act, in­tended to im­prove Amer­ica’s ed­u­ca­tional sys­tem.

2004 The largest pas­sen­ger ship in his­tory, the RMS Queen Mary 2, is chris­tened by Queen El­iz­a­beth II, who is the grand­daugh­ter of Queen Mary.

2011 An at­tempted as­sas­si­na­tion of Ari­zona Rep­re­sen­ta­tive Gabrielle Gif­fords is part of a shoot­ing spree in which Jared Lee Lough­ner kills six peo­ple.

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