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1616 Ex­plorer Wal­ter Raleigh is re­leased from the Tower of London af­ter 13 years and told to go and seek gold in Guyana.

1703 Akō in­ci­dent: 46 of the 47 sur­viv­ing Ronin com­mit sep­puku (rit­ual sui­cide) as rec­om­pense for aveng­ing their mas­ter’s death in Edo.

1902 In the Bri­tish House of Com­mons, Prime Min­is­ter David Lloyd Ge­orge sug­gests that there are as many as 30 000 armed blacks in Bri­tish mil­i­tary em­ploy in South Africa.

1904 Fi­etas, Jo­han­nes­burg, a mixed pop­u­la­tion area, is evac­u­ated and the area is burned to the ground.

1915 Al­bert Ein­stein pub­lishes his gen­eral the­ory of rel­a­tiv­ity.

1920 Pierre van Ryn­eveld and Quintin Brand ar­rive in Wyn­berg af­ter the first flight from London to Cape Town. It took a month and a half and would lead to the for­ma­tion of the SA Air Force, the world’s sec­ond-old­est af­ter the Royal Air Force.

1930 Amer­i­can fast food restau­rant chain KFC is founded by Colonel Har­land San­ders in North Corbin, Ken­tucky.

1942 Gen­eral Dou­glas MacArthur vows “I came through and I shall re­turn” af­ter es­cap­ing the Ja­panese-oc­cu­pied Philip­pines.

1947 A record 18-ton blue whale is caught in the South At­lantic.

1947 Dr Yusuf Dadoo and Dr Monty Naicker meet Ma­hatma Gandhi in Patna and hold sev­eral hours of dis­cus­sions.

1995 Bri­tain’s Queen El­iz­a­beth addresses the South African Par­lia­ment.

1995 The Ja­panese cult Aum Shin­rikyo car­ries out a sarin gas at­tack on the Tokyo sub­way dur­ing rush hour, killing 12 and in­jur­ing more than 6 200 peo­ple.

2001 Petro­bras 36 Oil Plat­form, the world’s largest oil rig, sinks with 400 000 US gal­lons of fuel and crude oil aboard.

2012 50 peo­ple are killed and 240 in­jured in a wave of ter­ror at­tacks across 10 cities in Iraq.

2012 The Disney movie records one of the largest losses in cinema his­tory with a $200 mil­lion write down.

2016 Barack Obama be­comes the first US pres­i­dent to visit Cuba since 1928.

2019 Fin­land is the world’s hap­pi­est coun­try, South Su­dan is world’s least happy, ac­cord­ing to an­nual World Hap­pi­ness Re­port. | THE HIS­TO­RIAN

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