Sunday World

Key findings of the study:

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• In 2008 and 2018, race was the largest contributo­r to inequality in South Africa, with its contributi­on rising over time.

• Black South Africans remain under represente­d in the middle class and race is still one of the strongest predictors of poverty.

• A little over 10% of the working population in SA is white, but white South Africans earn nearly three times the average wage of black Africans, who constitute nearly three quarters of the labour force.

• In South Africa, the top 10% of the population holds 80.6% of all financial assets.

• Land ownership is highly unequal in Namibia and South Africa. By 2018, Namibians of European descent owned about 70% (27.8 million hectares) of Namibia’s 39.7 million hectares of commercial farmland, whereas black Namibians owned only 16%.

• In South Africa, the legacy of colonialis­m and apartheid, rooted in racial and spatial segregatio­n, continues to reinforce inequality of outcomes.

• Data from South Africa also underscore the ongoing importance of race. When race is considered in the analysis its contributi­on to income inequality amounts to 41%, while the contributi­on of education is reduced to 30%. Race therefore remains a key driver of South Africa’s inequality through its impact on education and labour market outcomes.

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