Key findings of the study:
• In 2008 and 2018, race was the largest contributor to inequality in South Africa, with its contribution rising over time.
• Black South Africans remain under represented in the middle class and race is still one of the strongest predictors of poverty.
• A little over 10% of the working population in SA is white, but white South Africans earn nearly three times the average wage of black Africans, who constitute nearly three quarters of the labour force.
• In South Africa, the top 10% of the population holds 80.6% of all financial assets.
• Land ownership is highly unequal in Namibia and South Africa. By 2018, Namibians of European descent owned about 70% (27.8 million hectares) of Namibia’s 39.7 million hectares of commercial farmland, whereas black Namibians owned only 16%.
• In South Africa, the legacy of colonialism and apartheid, rooted in racial and spatial segregation, continues to reinforce inequality of outcomes.
• Data from South Africa also underscore the ongoing importance of race. When race is considered in the analysis its contribution to income inequality amounts to 41%, while the contribution of education is reduced to 30%. Race therefore remains a key driver of South Africa’s inequality through its impact on education and labour market outcomes.