54 – Nero succeeds Claudius as Roman Emperor.
1307 – French King Philip IV has Grand Master of the Knights Templar Jacques de Molay arrested and charged with idolatry and corruption.
1884 – Greenwich in London established as the universal time meridian of longitude.
1943 – Italy declares war on former Axis partner Germany.
2016 – American singer-songwriter Bob Dylan is awarded the Nobel prize for literature, having created new poetic expressions.