Remembering the past
1094 Spanish folk hero and national icon El Cid occupies Valencia, creating an independent principality, ruling over a pluralistic society with the popular support of Christians and Muslims alike.
1215 England’s King John signs Magna Carta at Runnymede – the birthplace of modern democracy, near Windsor, England. 1567 Republic of Genoa expels Jews. 1667 First human blood transfusion administered by Dr Jean-Baptiste Denys.
1785 Two French balloonists die in world’s first fatal aviation accident.
1834 Rioting in Safed, Palestine, many Jews die.
1844 Charles Goodyear patents the vulcanisation of rubber, a process to strengthen rubber, thus paving the way for rubber car tyres.
1860 Florence Nightingale, doyen of the modern nursing profession, opens the first school for nurses in London. 1876 Japanese tsunamis kill 28 000 people. 1878 Eadweard Muybridge takes a series of photographs to prove that all four feet of a horse leave the ground when it runs; the study becomes the basis of motion pictures.
1896 Japanese tsunami kills over 22 000 people.
1901 SA Constabulary’s Sergeant J Rogers earns Victoria Cross near Thaba Nchu during AngloBoer War.
1909 England, Australia and South Africa meet at Lord’s and form the Imperial Cricket Conference, the International Cricket Conference’s forerunner.
1911 Tabulating Computing Recording Corporation (International Business Machines, or IBM) is incorporated.
1915 Boer General Christiaan de Wet was found guilty of high treason for his part in the 1914 Rebellion.
1919 John Alcock and Arthur Brown complete first nonstop transatlantic flight.
1924 Ford Motor Company manufactures its 10 millionth automobile
1937 German expedition loses 16 members in an avalanche on Nanga Parbat, in Pakistan. 1940 Allied troops start to evacuate France. 1954 Uefa (Union des Associations Européennes de Football) is formed in Basle, Switzerland.
1962 South Africa passes a bill setting death penalty for many crimes. 1964 Last French troops leave Algeria. 1974 Defence minister PW Botha announces the SADF has taken over from the police in patrolling South West Africa’s northern borders.
1978 King Hussein of Jordan marries American Lisa Halaby; she becomes Queen Noor.
1981 Six members of PAC jailed for 15 years by Tanzania for killing of David Sibeko, PAC’s UN representative. 1982 Riots in Argentina after Falklands defeat. 1984 Two of the ‘Four Kings’ of boxing, Tommy ‘The Hitman’ Hearns and Roberto ‘Hands of Stone’ Duran meet. Hearns claims the KO.
1991 Mount Pinatubo becomes the secondlargest volcanic eruption of the 20th century.
1996 Sakhumzi Magxwalisa, SA super flyweight, wins the World Boxing Union (WBU) world champion title.
2000 Roman Catholic bishop Augustin Misago, accused of being behind the 1994 Rwandan genocide, is cleared and set free.
2012 An Apple I computer sells for a record $374 500.
2012 Nik Wallenda becomes the first person to tightrope walk directly over Niagara Falls.