Swazi Observer - - FEATURES & OPINION -

... JULY 13

- The Crusaders launched their fi­nal as­sault on Mus­lims in Jerusalem.

- The Ot­toman armies cap­tured Tabriz in north­west­ern Per­sia.

- Led by the court of Eg­mont, the Span­ish army de­feated the French at Grav­e­lines, France.

A group of 108 English colonists, led by Sir Richard Grenville, reached Roanoke Is­land, NC.

- In Eng­land, the Round­heads, led by Sir William Waller, were de­feated by roy­al­ist troops un­der Lord Wil­mot in the Bat­tle of Round­way Down.

- At the be­gin­ning of the French and In­dian War, Ge­orge Wash­ing­ton sur­ren­dered the small, cir­cu­lar Fort Ne­ces­sity in south­west­ern Penn­syl­va­nia to the French.

- The US Con­gress, un­der the Ar­ti­cles of Con­fed­er­a­tion, en­acted the North­west Or­di­nance, which es­tab­lished the rules for gov­ern­ing the North­west Ter­ri­tory, for ad­mit­ting new states to the Union and lim­it­ing the ex­pan­sion of slav­ery.

- The first pawn­broking or­di­nance was passed in New York City.

1832 - Henry School­craft dis­cov­ered the source of the Mis­sis­sippi River in Min­nesota.

- John Rug­gles re­ceived patent #1 from the U.S. Patent Of­fice for a trac­tion wheel used in lo­co­mo­tive steam en­gines. All 9 957 pre­vi­ous patents were not num­bered.

- Op­po­nents of the Civil War draft be­gan three days of ri­ot­ing in New York City, which re­sulted in more than 1 000 ca­su­al­ties.

- David Brown patented the first cash­car­rier sys­tem.

- The Con­gress of Ber­lin di­vided the Balkans among Euro­pean pow­ers.

- Philadel­phia’s Ed De­la­hanty be­came the sec­ond ma­jor league player to hit four home runs in a sin­gle game.

1931 - A ma­jor Ger­man fi­nan­cial in­sti­tu­tion, Dan­a­bank, failed. This led to the clos­ing of all banks in Ger­many un­til Au­gust 5.

- Bri­tain and the Soviet Union signed a mu­tual aid pact, that pro­vided the means for Bri­tain to send war ma­te­rial to the Soviet Union.

- In Geneva, the United States, Great Bri­tain and France reached an ac­cord on In­dochina which di­vided Viet­nam into two coun­tries, North and South, along the 17th par­al­lel.

- Car­roll Rosenbloom (owner of the Bal­ti­more Colts) and Robert Ir­say (owner of the Los An­ge­les Rams) traded teams.

- David Bed­ford set a new world record in the 10 000-me­tre race in Lon­don. His time was 27 min­utes, 31 sec­onds.

- Lee Ia­cocca was fired as pres­i­dent of Ford Mo­tor Co. by chair­man Henry Ford II.

- The All-Star Game was played out­side the United States for the first time. They played in Mon­treal, Canada.

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