In Turkey, anyone falling under the scope of Article 4(a) of the Social Security Law - recruited by one or more employers based on a service contract, i.e. private sector employees - are covered by unemployment insurance. Also those who are subject to private pension funds under temporary article 20 of the previous social security law are covered by unemployment insurance. However, unemployment insurance regulations do not apply to civil servants and former Bağ-Kur (social security organization for artisans and the self-employed) members.
In order for an employee to benefit from unemployment insurance when he or she becomes unemployed, the required conditions include:
• Forced loss of employment, not including legitimate firing
• In the case of a service contract, to be subject to the contract for 120 days prior to its termination
• Paid unemployment insurance premiums for at least 600 days over the previous three years prior to termination of the service contract
• Application to the nearest ISKUR office personally or electronically at www.iskur.gov.tr within 30 days after termination of the service contract (in case of failure to apply within this period except for force majeure, the delayed time in the application is deducted from the total entitlement period)
Under the above conditions, unemployment benefits are paid to the unemployed person. But the services provided by ISKUR are not limited to those. In addition to the unemployment benefits, the services indicated below are also provided:
• Payment of general health insurance premiums
• Assistance finding a new job
• Providing professional development, training and education services.
Duration of unemployment benefit
The duration of the unemployment benefit varies according to the number of days in which the unemployment insurance premium was paid and number of insured days within the last three years prior to the termination of the service contract:
• 180 days for insured unemployed persons who have worked as insured employees for 600 days and have paid their unemployment insurance premiums
• 240 days for the insured unemployed who have worked 900 days as insured employees and paid their unemployment insurance premiums
• 300 days for insured unemployed people who have been insured employees and paid unemployment insurance premiums for 1,080 days.
Amount of the benefit
Unemployment benefit is calculated as 40 percent of the average daily gross wage. The average wage is determined by taking the insured’s earnings basis to premium for the last four months into consideration. However, it should be noted that unemployment benefits also have an upper limit. It cannot exceed 80 percent of the monthly minimum wage gross amount.
The unemployment benefits payable for minimum wage and several higher wages are listed in the table above.
Termination of payment
While receiving unemployment benefit; unemployment benefits of those rejecting a job proposed by ISKUR (in accordance with their profession, close to the wages and working conditions of their last job and within the boundaries of the municipal contiguous area of the place of residence) without any cogent grounds and those who are detected to be working informally during the period in which they receive the benefit immediately barred from receiving benefits.
Unemployment benefits of those beginning to receive pension payments during that period are cut as of the date that their pensions start. In addition, the unemployment benefits of those who refuse or do not continue trainings offered by ISKUR and do not reply to calls made by the Institution on time, or do not provide the required information and documents in a timely manner, are also cut off. However, if the person resumes trainings or submits documents, payments are resumed.