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Future Studies - - العدد 01 - نوفمبر 2017 -

‪1- Jan Angstrom, Introduction: Debating the nature of modern war, in: Isabelle Duyvesteyn &‬ Jan ‪Angstrom, ‪Rethinking the Nature of War,‬ (London: Frank Class, 1st edition), p. 4.‬ ‪2- Alan Stephens and Nicola Baker,‬ ‪Making Sense of War: Strategy for the 21st Century,‬ (Cambridge: Cambridge University press, 2006), p.‬ 166. ‪3- Ibid., p. 167.‬ ‪4- Maj. Gregory A. Thiele, Fourth generation warfare,‬ ‪Marine Corps Gazette,‬ ‪Vol. 97, no. 6,‬ June ‪2013, p. 53.‬ ‪5- William S. Lind, Understanding fourth generation war,‬ ‪Military Review,‬ ‪September /‬ October ‪2004, p. 12.‬ ‪6- Ibid., p. 12.‬ ‪7- William S. Lind (et al.), Fourth Generation,‬ ‪Marine Corps Gazette,‬ ‪Vol. 97, no. 8, August‬ 2013, ‪p. 10.‬ ‪8- George Michael, Counter Insurgency & Lone Wolf Terrorism,‬ ‪Terrorism & Political Violence,‬ Vol. ‪26, No. 1, 2014, p. 46.‬ ‪9- William S. Lind (et al.), op.cit., p. 11.‬ -10 إسماعيل جمعة، مفاهيم عسكرية: الحرب الخاطفة، موقع األهرام، موجود على الرابط التالي: https://goo.gl/SsA43S ‪11- William S. Lind and Gregory A. Thiele,‬ ‪4th Generation Warfare Handbook,‬ ‪(Finland: Castalia‬ ‪House, 2015), epub edition.‬ ‪12- Colonel Thomas X. Hammes,‬ ‪The Sling and the Stone: On War in the 21st Century,‬ (USA: ‪Zenith Press, 2006), epub edition.‬ ‪13- Col. Thomas X. Hammes, Countering Evolved Insurgency Networks,‬ ‪Military Review,‬ July – ‪August 2006, p. 151.‬ ‪14- Michael J. Artelli & Deckro, Richard F., Fourth Generation Operations: Principles for The‬ Long ‪War, ‪Small Wars & Insurgencies,‬ Vol. 19, No. 2, June 2008, p. 227.‬ ‪15- Martin Van Creveld, Technology and War II: Postmodern War?, in: Charles Townshend (ed.),‬ The ‪Oxford History of Modern War,‬ ‪(New York: Oxford University press, 2000), p. 357.‬

‪16- Ibid., p. 357‬ ‪17- Minwoo Yun, Insurgency Warfare as an Emerging New Modes of Warfare & the New‬ Enemy,

‪The Korean Journal of Defense Analysis,‬ ‪Vol. 22, No. 1, March 2010, p. 114.‬

‪18- Donald J. Reed,‬ Op.cit., ‪pp. 692 –‬ 693. ‪19- Ibid., pp. 692 – 693.‬ -20 مركـز الثقـل هـو: مصـدر القـوة الـذي يوفـر القـوة المعنويـة أو الماديـة، وحريـة العمـل، واإلرادة للتصـرف، ويقوم العمل العسـكري على تحديـد مركـز ثقـل العـدو والعمـل علـى مهاجمتـه، وإلحـاق الهزيمـة بـه، مـع حماية مركـز الثقل الخـاص بالطـرف المهاجم.

‪21- Donald J. Reed, Op.cit., p. 694‬ ‪22- Colonel Dr. Vasile Maier “Et Al.”, Fifth Generation Warfare: A Sf Concept or an Inevitable‬ Perspective?, ‪Romanian Military Thinking,‬ No. 1, January – March 2012, P 103.‬

‪23- Donald J. Reed, Op.cit., P 695.‬ ‪24- Lt. col. Stanton S. Coerr, Fifth Generation War,‬ ‪Marine Corps Gazette,‬ ‪Vol. 93, Issue 1, January‬

‪2009, P 66.‬ ‪25- Donald J. Reed.,‬ Op.cit., ‪P 695.‬ ‪26- Martin Van Creveld,‬ ‪The transformation of war: the most radical reinterpretation of‬ war ‪since Clausewitz,‬ ‪(New York: the free press, 1991), epub edition.‬ ‪27- T.x. Hammes, Fourth Generation Warfare Evolves, Fifth Emerges,‬ ‪Military Review,‬ ‪Vol. 87, No.‬

‪3, May – June 2007, pp. 20 – 23.‬

‪28- George Michael,‬ ‪Lone Wolf: Terror & The Rise of Leaderless Resistance,‬ (Nashville: Vaderbilt University Press, 2012), p. 156.‬ ‪29- T. X. Hammes, Technologies converge and power diffuses: The evolution of small, smart, and‬ ‪cheap weapons, ‪Policy Analysis‬ (Cato Institute), no. 786, January 27, 2016, (p. 1, 5), accessible at:‬ ‪https://goo.gl/WgPKtv (Last accessed: October 22, 2016).‬ -30 تـي. إكـس هامـز، الدرونـز نموذجـاً: التوظيفـات اإلرهابيـة المحتملـة لــ “أنظمـة التسـليح المسـتقلة”، اتجاهـات األحـداث، العـدد 17، مايو – يونيـو 2016 ،ص ص31 – .32 -31 طائـرات داعـش المتفجـرة.. الـ”درونـز” سـاح التنظيـم الجديـد قبـل معركـة الموصـل، وأميـركا قلقـة علـى جنودهـا، موقـع هافينجتـون بوسـت عربـي، 12 أكتوبـر 2016، موجـود علـى الرابـط التالـي: https://goo.gl/vkC9dN ‪32- Kurt Nimmo, Mi5, British Defense Sources Say ISIS Will Bomb Football Games with Drones,‬ Infowars.com, ‪July 23, 2015, accessible at: https://goo.gl/llG5HB‬ ‪33- T. X. Hammes, Cheap technology will challenge U.S. tactical dominance,‬ ‪Joint Force‬ Quarterly, ‪no. 81, March 2016, p. 77.‬ ‪34- Philip Kapusta, The Grey Zone,‬ ‪Special Warfare: The Professional Bulletin of the John‬ F. ‪Kennedy Special Warfare Center & School,‬ ‪Vol. 28 Issue 4, October – December 2015, p.‬ 20.

‪35- Ibid., p. 22.‬ ‪36- Miroslaw Banasik, Unconventional war and warfare in the grey zone: the new spectrum of mod-‬ ‪ern conflicts, ‪Journal of Defense Resources Management,‬ Vol. 7, Issue 1, 2016, p. 41.‬

‪37- Williamson Murray & Peter R. Mansoor,‬ ‪Hybrid warfare: fighting complex opponents‬ from ‪the ancient world to the present,‬ ‪(Cambridge: Cambridge University press, 1st edition: 2012),‬ pp. ‪2 – 3.‬ ‪38- Ibid., pp. 4 – 5.‬ ‪39- Ibid., P 698‬ ‪40- Miroslaw Banasik,‬ op.cit., p. 37. ‪41- Ibid., p. 39.‬ ‪42- Lt. Gen. Charles T. Cleveland (et al.), Shedding Light on the grey zone: A new approach to human‬ centric warfare, ‪Army Magazine,‬ Vol. 65, Issue 9, September 2015, p. 30.‬ ‪43- Seth G. Jones, Al Qaeda in Iran Why Tehran is Accommodating the Terrorist Group,‬ Foreign Affairs, ‪January 29, 2012, accessible at: https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/iran/2012-01-29/‬ al-qaeda-iran ‪44- Joshua M. Brandon & David H. Gray, Iran’s Foothold in Latin America: Striking Back at the United‬ ‪States, ‪Global Security Studies,‬ Vol. 6, Issue 3, Summer 2015, p. 24.‬ ‪45- Mathilde Simon, The Drug Trade in Afghanistan: Understanding Motives behind Farmers’ Decision‬ to Cultivate Opium Poppies, ‪Foreign Policy Journal,‬ November 27, 2015, (p. 3), accessible‬ ‪at: https://goo.gl/8F7skp‬ ‪46- Ibid., P 698.‬ ‪47- Minwoo Yun, Op.cit., p. 114‬ ‪48- George Michael, Lone Wolf: Terror & The Rise of Leaderless Resistance, Op.cit., p. 156.‬ ‪49- Donald J. Reed, Beyond the War on Terror: into the Fifth Generation of War & Conflict,‬ Studies ‪in Conflict & Terrorism,‬ ‪Vol. 31, Issue 8, 2008, P 692.‬ ‪50- David J. Katz, Conflict by Other Means: Waging Financial War,‬ Parameters, ‪Vol. 43, No.‬ 4, ‪Winter 2013 / 2014, p. 79.‬ ‪51- Juan C. Zarate, The Coming Financial Wars,‬ Parameters, ‪Vol. 43, No. 4, Winter 2013 /‬ 2014, ‪pp. 87 – 88.‬ ‪52- Gary Clyde Hufbauer (et al.),‬ ‪Economic Sanctions Reconsidered: History and Current‬ Policy, ‪(U.S.: Peterson Institute, 2nd edition: 1991), p.‬ 9. -53 الكشـف عـن رد روسـي ممكـن علـى عقوبـات أمريـكا، موقـع سـبوتنيك، 19 أكتوبـر 2016، موجـود علـى الرابـط التالـي: https:// goo.gl/9wQgjZ

‪54- Robert D. Blackwill & Jennifer M. Harris,‬ ‪War by other means: Geoeconomics and‬ statecraft, ‪(US: The Belknap press of Harvard University press, 2016), p. 50.‬ ‪55- Ibid., p. 29.‬ ‪56- Juan C. Zarate, op.cit., p. 92.‬ -57 القاعـدة تتبنـى الهجـوم علـى منشـآت النفط السـعودية، جريـدة االتحـاد، 26 فبرايـر 2006، موجود على الرابـط التالـي: http://www. alittihad.ae/details.php?id=50694&y=2006 -58 منـذر بالضيافـي، تونـس.. “داعـش” يتبنـي عمليـة سوسـة اإلرهابيـة، موقـع العربيـة، 27 يونيـو 2015، موجـود علـى الرابـط التالـي: https://goo.gl/1xJf8c -59 أشـرف عبـد الحميـد، انتهـاء التحقيـق فـي حـادث سـقوط الطائـرة الروسـية فوق سـيناء، موقـع العربيـة، 19 يوليـو 2016، موجود على الرابط التالـي: https://goo.gl/U0yE5P ‪60- Nathalie Caplan, Cyber War: the Challenge to National Security, ‪Global Security Studies,‬ Volume‬ 4, Issue 1, Winter 2013, p. 92.‬ ‪61- Thomas Rid, Cyberwar & Peace: Hacking Can Reduce Real World Violence,‬ Foreign Affairs, ‪Vol. 92, No. 6, November / December 2013, pp. 80 – 81.‬ ‪62- Neil C. Rowe, The attribution of cyber warfare, in: James A. Green (ed.),‬ ‪Cyber Warfare: A‬ ‪multidisciplinary analysis,‬ ‪(New York: Routledge, 1st edition: 2015) p. 61.‬ ‪63- Nathalie Caplan,‬ op.cit., ‪p. 93.‬ -64 روسـيا تؤكـد اتخـاذ كل مـا يلـزم لحمايـة أمـن المعلومـات بعـد أنبـاء عـن اختـراق أنظمتهـا اإللكترونيـة، موقـع روسـيا اليـوم، 5 نوفمبـر 2016، موجـود علـى الرابـط التالـي: https://goo.gl/T1HTue ‪65- Khurshid Khan, Understanding Information Warfare & Its Relevance to Pakistan,‬ Strategic Studies, ‪Vol. 4, No. 1, 2013, pp. 139 – 140.‬ ‪66- Don Fallis, What Is Disinformation?, ‪Library Trends,‬ Vol. 63, No. 3, 2015, p.‬ 402. ‪67- Nigel Inkster, Information Warfare and the US Presidential Election,‬ Survival, ‪vol. 58, no.‬ 5, ‪October – November 2016, p. 27.‬ ‪68- Ibid., p. 23.‬ ‪69- Emerson T. Brooking & P. W. Singer, War goes viral: How social media being weaponized?,‬ The Atlantic, ‪Vol. 318, Issue 4, November 2016, p. 79.‬ ‪70- Angela Merkel wants Facebook and Google’s secrets revealed,‬ BBC, ‪October 28, 2016,‬ accessible at: http://www.bbc.com/news/technology-37798762‬ ‪71- The post-truth world Yes, I’d lie to you, The‬ Economist, ‪September 10, 2016, accessible‬ at: https://goo.gl/IOQjZ5 72- Ibid. -73 االغتصـاب المزعـوم فـي برليـن: وسـائل إعـام روسـية تتهـم المهاجريـن بفيديـو ملفـق، موقـع فرانـس 29 ، 24ينايـر 2016، موجود على الرابـط التالـي: https://goo.gl/0oEN8Y

‪74- Emerson T. Brooking & P. W. Singer, op.cit., p. 70.‬ ‪75- Vijai Pal (et al.), Biological Warfare Agents and their Detection and Monitoring Techniques,‬ Defence Science Journal,‬ ‪Vol. 66, No. 5, September 2016, p. 445.‬ ‪76- Ibid., p. 446.‬ ‪77- Kenya police ‘foil anthrax attack’ by ‘IS-linked group’,‬ ‪BBC news,‬ ‪May 4, 2016, accessible‬ at: http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-36198561 ‪78- ISIS Terrorist Cell Dismantled in Morocco ‘Planned to Use Biological Weapons’,‬ ‪Morocco World‬ News, ‪February 19, 2016, accessible at: https://goo.gl/fWaKw3‬ ‪79- T. X. hammes, Op.cit., pp. 20 – 22.‬ ‪80- Harald Doornbos & Jenan Moussa, How the Islamic State Seized a Chemical Weapons Stockpile,‬ ‪Foreign Policy,‬ August 17, 2016, accessible at: http://foreignpolicy.com/2016/08/17/how-theislamic-state-seized-a-chemical-weapons-stockpile/‬ ‪81- Elisabeth Eaves, What does “Nuclear Terrorism” Really Mean?,‬ ‪Bulletin of the Atomic‬ scien-

tists, ‪April 7, 2016, accessible at: http://thebulletin.org/what-does-nuclear-terrorism-really-mean9309‬ ‪82- William S. Lind (et al.), The Changing Face of War: Into the Fourth Generation,‬ ‪Marine Corps‬ Gazette, ‪Vol. 73, no. 10, October 1989, p. 26.‬ ‪83- Daniela Irrera, The Crime–Terror– Insurgency “Nexus” Implications for Global Security, in:‬ Scott ‪Nicholas Romaniukstewart Tristan Webb,‬ ‪Insurgency and Counterinsurgency in Modern‬ War, ‪(New York: CRC press, 2016), p. 40.‬ ‪84- Juan Miguel del Cid Gómez, A Financial Profile of the Terrorism of Al-Qaeda and its‬ Affiliates, ‪Perspectives on Terrorism,‬ ‪Vol. 4, no. 4, 2010, accessible at: https://goo.gl/3o61yO‬ ‪85- Gianluca Mezzofiore, Air Cocaine: Al-Qaeda Ally with Colombia’s Drug Cartels to Smuggle‬ ‪Drugs into Europe, ‪International Business Time,‬ November 30, 2014, accessible at: https://goo.‬ gl/op4dbe ‪86- Vanda Felbab Brown, The Drug economy in Afghanistan & Pakistan, and military conflict in the‬ ‪region, ‪The National Bureau of Asian Research Report,‬ no. 20, December 2009, (p. 12), accessible‬ at: https://goo.gl/9D4lVw‬ ‪87- MARY ANASTASIA O’GRADY, The Bolivia-Jihadist Axis of Cocaine, Evo Morales denies running‬ ‪a narco state. Mounting evidence suggests otherwise, ‪The Wall Street Journal,‬ February 7, 2016,‬ ‪accessible at: http://www.wsj.com/articles/the-bolivia-jihadist-axis-of-cocaine-1454882756‬ ‪88- Matthew D. Phillips, and Emily A. Kamen, Entering the Black Hole: The Taliban, Terrorism, and‬ ‪Organised Crime, ‪Journal of Terrorism Research,‬ Vol. 5, Issue 3, September 2014, p. 39.‬ ‪89- Major John A. Van Messel,‬ ‪Unrestricted Warfare: A Chinese Doctrine for Future‬ Warfare?, ‪(Master of Operational Studies, School of Advanced Fighting, Marine Corps University, 2004), P 17.‬ ‪90- Robert Arthur Baird, Pyro-Terrorism—The Threat of Arson-Induced Forest Fires as a Future Terrorist‬ Weapon of Mass Destruction, ‪Studies in Conflict & Terrorism,‬ Vol. 29, Issue 5, 2006, p. 415.‬ ‪91- Sarah Marsden, Forest Jihad: Assessing the Evidence for “Popular Resistance Terrorism”,‬ Stud‪ies in Conflict & Terrorism,‬ ‪Vol. 37, Issue 1, 2014, p. 2.‬ ‪92- Robert Arthur Baird, op.cit., p. 416.‬ ‪93- George Michael, Counter Insurgency & Lone Wolf Terrorism, Op.cit., pp. 49 – 50.‬ ‪94- Stephanie Alice Baker, From the criminal crowd to the ‘‘mediated crowd’’: the impact of‬ social ‪media on the 2011 English riots, ‪Safer Communities,‬ VOL. 11 NO. 1, 2012, p. 40.‬ ‪95- Rene Toomse, The Concept and Framework of Pre–Emptive Strategic Development‬ Operations, ‪Baltic Security & Defense Review,‬ Vol. 14, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 115 – 116.‬ ‪96- Col. Thomas X. Hammes, Countering Evolved Insurgency Networks, op.cit., p.‬ 153. ‪97- Lt. Gen. Charles T. Cleveland (et al.), op.cit., p. 30.‬ ‪98- Jason Horowitz, In Italian schools, Reading, Writing and recognizing fake news,‬ New York Times, ‪October 18, 2017, accessible at: https://goo.gl/vsUwQc‬ ‪99- James Bamford, Every move you make, ‪Foreign Policy,‬ no. 22, September / October 2016,‬ p. 58. ‪100- Christopher Coker, Targeting in Context, in: Paul A.L. Ducheine (et al.) (eds.),‬ ‪Targeting: The‬ ‪Challenges of Modern Warfare,‬ ‪(Netherlands, Springer, 2016), p. 13.‬

‪101- Ibid., pp. 13 – 14.‬ ‪102- Tim Hinchliffe, CIA ‘Siren Servers’ can predict social uprisings 3-5 days in advance,‬ ‪The Sociable,‬ ‪October 7, 2016, accessible at: http://sociable.co/technology/cia-siren-servers-social-uprisings/‬

‪103- Donald J. Reed, Op.cit., P 695.‬ ‪104- Michael J. Artelli & Richard F. Deckro, Op.cit., P 232.‬ ‪105- Colonel Pat Phelam, Fourth Generation Warfare & Its Challenge for The Military &‬ Society,

‪Defense Studies,‬ ‪Vol. 11, No. 1, March 2011, P 115.‬

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