هوامش الدراسة

Future Studies - - العدد 03 - يونيو 2018 -

‪1- Hunt Allcott and Matthew Gentzkow, “Social Media and Fake News in the 2016 Election”,‬ Journal of ‪Economic Perspectives, Vol. 31, No. 2, Spring 2017, P 211.‬ ‪2- Nayef Al-Rodhan, “Post-Truth Politics, The Fifth Estate and The Securitisation of Fake News”, Geneva‬ ‪Centre For Security Policy (Gcsp), June 12, 2017, accessible at: https://goo.gl/ej9Ups‬ ‪3- Jacob Soll, “The Long and Brutal History of Fake News”, Politico Magazine, December 18,‬ 2016, ‪accessible at: https://goo.gl/S6MZDm‬ ‪4- Tom Standage, “Rewind: The True History of Fake News”,‬ ‪The Economist,‬ ‪June/July 2017,‬ accessible at: https://goo.gl/o1Gcd3‬ ‪5- Robert Darnton, “The True History of Fake News”,‬ ‪NYR Daily,‬ ‪February 13, 2017, accessible‬ at: https://goo.gl/RFfKqm ‪6- Marc Bloch, “Reflections of a Historian on the False News of the War”, trans. James P. Holoka,‬ Michigan War Studies Review, Vol. 51, July 2013, P.I‬ ‪7- Richard Kreitner, “Post-Truth and Its Consequences: What A 25-Year-Old Essay Tells Us About‬ the ‪Current Moment”, The Nation, November 30, 2016, accessible at: https://goo.gl/kQWW66‬

-8 بريس كوتورييه، عالم ما بعد الوقائع يتمدد، صحيفة الحياة اللندنية، 25 يناير 2017، موجود على الرابط التالي: https://goo.gl/fMCPSc ‪9- Margaret Sullivan, “The Post-Truth World of The Trump Administration Is Scarier Than You Think”, The‬ ‪Washington Post, December 4, 2016, accessible at: https://goo.gl/dXy7il .‬ ‪10- Naja Bentzen, “‘Fake News’ and The Eu’s Response”, European Parliamentary Research‬ Service, ‪Pe 599.384, April 2017, PP.1-2‬ ‪11- Nayef Al-Rodhan,” Post-Truth Politics, The Fifth Estate and The Securitisation Of Fake‬ News”, Op.Cit. ‪12- Shawn Powers and Markos Kounalakis, eds., “Can Public Diplomacy Survive the Internet? Bots,‬ ‪Echochambers, And Disinformation”, U.S. Advisory Commission on Public Diplomacy, May 2017, P. 2‬ ‪13- Caroline Jack, “Lexicon of Lies: Terms for Problematic Information”, Data & Society Research Institute,‬ PP. 2-3‬ ‪14- Rick Anderson, “Fake news and alternative facts: five challenges for academic libraries”,‬ Insights, ‪Vol. 30, No. 2, July 2017, P. 8.‬ ‪15- Eric Bradner, “Conway: Trump White House offered ‘alternative facts’ on crowd size”, CNN, January‬ 23, ‪2017, accessible at: https://goo.gl/NNfKPz‬ ‪16- Samuel Osborne, “Theresa May accuses Jeremy Corbyn of using ‘alternative facts’ after he reads‬ ‪leaked texts from Tory council leader”, Independent, February 8, 2017, accessible at: https://goo.gl/‬ JtGn7M ‪17- Craig Silverman and Lawrence Alexander, “Duping Trump Supporters with Fake News”,‬ BuzzFeedNews, November 4, 2016, accessible at: https://goo.gl/EWvGtQ‬ ‪18- Claire Wardle, “Fake News. It’s Complicated”, First Draft,‬ ‪February 16, 2017, accessible‬ at: https://Firstdraftnews.Com/Fake-News-Complicated/ ‪19- Hunt Allcott and Matthew Gentzkow, “Social Media and Fake News In The 2016 Election”,‬ Op.Cit, P. 213 ‪20- Kai Shu, et al., “Fake News Detection on Social Media: A Data Mining Perspective”, ACM SIGKDD‬ ‪Explorations Newsletter, Vol. 19, no. 1, June 2017, PP. 22-23.‬ ‪21- Jen Weedon, et al., “Information Operations and Facebook”,‬ ‪Facebook Security,‬ ‪Version 1.0, April‬ ‪27, 2017, P. 5‬ ‪22- Lizzie Dearden, “Jeremy Corbyn accuses BBC of reporting ‘fake news’ when challenged on‬ resignation rumours”, Independent, February 9, 2017, accessible at: https://goo.gl/WxPqhC‬ ‪23- Mark Verstraete, et al., “Identifying and Countering FAKE NEWS”, Arizona Legal Studies‬ Discussion Paper, No. 17-15, August 2017, P. 5‬ ‪24- Ibid, P. 6‬ ‪25- “Fake News and Misinformation: The roles of the nation’s Digital Newsstands, Facebook,‬ Google, ‪Twitter and Reddit”, Stanford Law School, Law and Policy Lab, October, 2017, P. 10‬ ‪26- Claire Wardle, “Fake News. It’s Complicated.”, Op.Cit.,‬ ‪27- Simon Kemp, “Digital In 2017: Global Overview”, Hootsuite,‬ PP. 5-7 ‪28- Ibid., pp.5-7‬ ‪29- “IAB internet advertising revenue report 2016 full year results”,‬ ‪Interactive Advertising Bureau‬ ‪(IAB), April, 2017, accessible at: https://goo.gl/uLmTGL‬ ‪30- Nic Newman, et al., “Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2017,”‬ ‪(University of Oxford and‬ Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism, 2017), PP. 30-31.‬ ‪31- Ibid, PP. 46-47.‬ ‪32- Elisa Shearer and Jeffrey Gottfried, “News Use Across Social Media Platforms 2017”, Pew Research‬ ‪Center, September, 2017, P. 2, accessible at: https://goo.gl/QdzHRD.‬ ‪33- Nic Newman, et al., Op.Cit.,PP. 30-31‬ ‪34- Michael Barthel, et al., “Many Americans Believe Fake News Is Sowing Confusion”, Pew Research‬ ‪Center, December, 2016, P. 3, accessible at: https://goo.gl/MnCzzY.‬ ‪35- Ibid, P.8‬ ‪36- Ibid, P.9‬ ‪37- Fake News Survey, EBU, accessible at: https://www.ebu.ch/digital-media/fake-news.‬ ‪38- Suzanne Nossel, “The Pro-Free Speech Way to Fight Fake News”, Foreign Policy, October 12, 2017,‬ ‪accessible at: https://goo.gl/wyYfYd‬ ‪39- Hunt Allcott and Matthew Gentzkow, “Social Media and Fake News In The 2016 Election”,‬ Op.Cit, P. 21 ‪40- David Lazer, et al., “Combating Fake News: An Agenda for Research and Action”,‬ Conference ‪held by Northeastern University and Harvard University, February 17–18, 2017, P. 3‬ ‪41- “Fighting Fake News: Workshop Report”, The Information Society Project and The Floyd Abrams‬ ‪Institute for Freedom of Expression, March 7, 2017, PP. 5-6, accessible at: https://goo.gl/NHVKTm.‬ ‪42- Hunt Allcott and Matthew Gentzkow, “Social Media and Fake News In The 2016 Election”, Op.Cit, P.‬ 211.

‪43- Alex Hern, “How social media filter bubbles and algorithms influence the election”,‬ ‪The Guardian,‬ ‪May 22, 2017, accessible at: https://goo.gl/FzGGLi‬ ‪44- Kevin Townsend, “Fake News: Methods, Motivations and Countermeasures”,‬ ‪Security Week,‬ June ‪15, 2017, accessible at: https://goo.gl/d2BC59‬ ‪45- Craig Silverman and Lawrence Alexander, “Duping Trump Supporters with Fake News”, Op.Cit.‬ ‪46- David Lazer, et al., “Combating Fake News: An Agenda for Research and Action”, Op.Cit, P. 8.‬ ‪47- Christopher Lane, “How “Manipulation Armies” Are Undermining Democracies”, Psychology‬ ‪Today, November 18, 2017, accessible at: https://goo.gl/9EmeeG‬ ‪48- Sanja Kelly, et al., “Freedom on the Net 2017: Manipulating Social Media to Undermine‬ Democracy”, ‪FreedomHouse, November 2017, P. 3.‬ ‪49- Mathew Ingram, “Twitter Account of Journalist, Activist Hacked to Spread Fake News”,‬ Fortune, June ‪9, 2017, accessible at: https://goo.gl/cDPtP7‬ ‪50- Samanth Subramanian, “Inside the Macedonian Fake-News Complex”,‬ Wired, ‪February 15,‬ 2017, ‪accessible at: https://goo.gl/fsskzC‬ -51 نهاد محمود، أزمة كامبريدج أناليتيكا: جدل التوظيف االنتخابي للبيانات الشخصية لمستخدمي الفيسبوك، مركز المستقبل لألبحاث والدراسات المتقدمة، 21 مارس 2018، موجود على الرابط التالي: https://goo.gl/4S9Do2 ‪52- Kai Shu (et al.), Fake News Detection on Social Media: A Data Mining Perspective, Op.Cit., p. 26‬ ‪53- Chengcheng Shao (et al.), The spread of fake news by social bots, Indiana University, July 2017,‬ (p. ‪1), accessible at: https://bit.ly/2ImoHFi‬ ‪54- Lion Gu (et al.), The Fake News Machine: How Propagandists Abuse the Internet and Manipulate‬ the ‪Public, A TrendLabs Research Paper, 2017, (p. 35), accessible at: https://bit.ly/2weDfBT‬ ‪55- Paul R Brewer (et al.), The impact of real news about fake news: Intertextual processes and political‬ ‪satire, International Journal of Public Opinion Research, Vol. 25, no. 3, 2013, pp. 323 – 343.‬ ‪56- Zi Chu (et al.), Detecting automation of twitter accounts: Are you a human, bot, or cyborg? IEEE‬ ‪Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing, Vol. 9, no. 6, 2012, (p.1), accessible at: https://‬ bit.ly/1kyG2cB ‪57- Orjela Stafasani, Kosovo: Fake news in a struggling democracy, trans. John Hodgson,‬ Eurozine, ‪September 2017, (pp. 5 – 7), accessible at: https://bit.ly/2rnH1UF‬ ‪58- Lion Gu (et al.), The Fake News Machine: How Propagandists Abuse the Internet and Manipulate‬ the ‪Public, Op.Cit., pp. 39 – 42.‬ ‪59- Ibid., p. 36.‬ ‪60- Ibid., p. 22‬ ‪61- Ibid., pp. 62 – 63‬ ‪62- Konrad Niklewicz, Weeding Out Fake News: An Approach to Social Media Regulation,‬ (Brussels: ‪Wilfried Martens Centre For European Studies, July 2017), p. 21.‬ ‪63- Sanja Kelly (et al.), Freedom on the Net 2017: Manipulating Social Media to Undermine‬ Democracy, ‪Op.Cit., P. 3.‬ ‪64- Hunt Allcott and Matthew Gentzkow, Social Media and Fake News in the 2016 Election,‬ Op.Cit., p. 212. ‪65- Public Trust in Government: 1958-2017,‬ ‪Pew Research Center,‬ ‪May 3, 2017, accessible at:‬ https:// pewrsr.ch/2qSKokQ ‪66- Jane Cordy, The Social Media Revolution: Political and Security Implications, Nato Parliamentary‬ Assembly, Committee on The Civil Dimension of Security, August 30, 2017, (p. 10), accessible at:‬ https://bit.ly/2KEjNSl ‪67- Robin Emmott, Expect more fake news from Russia, top NATO general says,‬ Reuters, February 18, ‪2017, https://reut.rs/2jALdw7‬ ‪68- Russell Goldmandec, Reading Fake News, Pakistani Minister Directs Nuclear Threat at Israel, The‬ ‪New York Times, December 24, 2016, accessible at: https://nyti.ms/2KGbcyr‬ ‪69- French watchdog: Macron data mixed in with fake news in leak, FoxNews,‬ ‪May 6, 2017,‬ accessible ‪at: https://fxn.ws/2qcNBOY‬ ‪70- News Media Association, “Culture, Media and Sport Select Committee ‘Fake News’ Inquiry: News‬ ‪Media Association Response” (London, March, 1, 2017), p. 6.‬ ‪71- Nyshka Chandran, “Fake news’ can be very dangerous, and events this year in Asia proved‬ it, ‪CNBC, December 25, 2017, accessible at: https://cnb.cx/2BVrYIU‬ ‪72- Jonathan Albright, Welcome to the Era of Fake News, Media and Communication,‬ ‪Vol. 5, Issue‬ 2, ‪June 2017, pp. 87 – 89.‬ ‪73- Vian Bakir and Andrew McStay, Fake News and the Economy of Emotions: Problems, Causes,‬ Solutions, Digital Journalism, Vol. 6, Issue 2, 2018, pp. 159 – 160.‬ ‪74- Rahul Bedi, two more lynched in India as police struggle to contain WhatsApp rumors of child‬ kidnappers, The Telegraph, June 11, 2018, accessible at: https://goo.gl/y5DNQZ‬ ‪75- Culture, Media and Sport Select Committee ‘Fake News’ Inquiry: News Media Association‬ Response,

‪Op.Cit., p.8.‬ ‪76- Fighting Fake News: Workshop Report, The Information Society Project and The Floyd Abrams‬ ‪Institute for Freedom of Expression, March 7, 2017, Op.Cit., p. 3.‬ ‪77- Kingsley Napley, The Impact of Fake News: Economy - part 1, Lexology,‬ ‪accessible at:‬ https://bit. ly/2whSb24 ‪78- Fake Financial News is a Real Threat to Majority of Americans: New AICPA Survey, AICPA, April‬ 27, ‪2017, accessible at: https://bit.ly/2C5yCIU‬ ‪79- Kingsley Napley, The Impact of Fake News: Economy - part 2,‬ Lexology, ‪July 14, 2017,‬ accessible ‪at: https://bit.ly/2KGVcfy‬ ‪80- Andy Swan, Secrets Of Smart Investors Profiting From Market-Moving Tweets,‬ Forbes, ‪May 21,‬ ‪2017, accessible at: https://bit.ly/2wkpDF6‬ ‪81- Consumer Action, Fake news: Recognizing and stemming misinformation,‬ ‪Consumer Action,‬ September 2017, (pp. 1 – 2), accessible at: https://bit.ly/2whRlSY‬ ‪82- D. Tambini, Fake News: Public Policy Responses, Media Policy Brief, no. 20, (London: 82- Media‬ ‪Policy Project, London School of Economics and Political Science, 2017), (p.14), accessible at: https://bit.‬ ly/2yT5iGH ‪83- Vincent L. Morelli, and Kristin Archick. European Union Efforts to Counter Disinformation, Congressional‬ Research Service, December 1, 2016, (pp. 1 – 2), accessible at: https://bit.ly/2rmvghc‬ ‪84- Questions and Answers About The East Stratcom Task Force, European Union External Action,‬ ‪January 14, 2017, accessible at: https://bit.ly/2GT4XoN‬ ‪85- Jill Petzinger, Germany’s Social Media Law May Force Facebook To Be Judge, Jury, And‬ Executioner ‪Of Free Speech, Quartz, October 1, 2017, accessible at: https://bit.ly/2FO7YFe‬ ‪86- Jane Cordy, The Social Media Revolution: Political and Security Implications, Op.Cit., p. 14.‬ ‪87- Should the UK adopt European-style fake news laws?, The Week, January 4, 2018, accessible‬ at: https://bit.ly/2JZrlxV ‪88- Sara Fischer, Germany, France begin legal fight against fake news, AXIOS, January 4, 2018, accessible‬ ‪at: https://bit.ly/2IiloP5‬ ‪89- Catherine Edwards, Italy debates fines and prison terms for people who spread fake news, The Local, 16‬ ‪February 2017, accessible at: https://bit.ly/2jwnoFw‬ ‪90- Kevin Doyle, Five years in jail for spreading ‘fake news’ under FF proposal, Independent.ie, December 4‬ ‪2017, accessible at: https://bit.ly/2jy5dzi‬ ‪91- Ivana Kottasová, Europe Gives Facebook, Twitter Final Warning on Hate Speech, CNN, September 28,‬ ‪2017, accessible at: https://cnnmon.ie/2FNo2qX‬ ‪92- Nabiha Syed, Real Talk About Fake News: Towards a Better Theory for Platform Governance, The Yale‬ ‪Law Journal Forum, Vol. 127, October 9, 2017, p. 341.‬ ‪93- French newsrooms unite to fight election misinformation with the launch of CrossCheck, First Draft, February‬ 6, 2017, accessible at: https://bit.ly/2khZCM7‬ ‪94- Lucinda Southern, How Norway’s publishers are banding together to fight fake news, Digiday, May 22,‬ ‪2017, accessible at: https://bit.ly/2qopmpr‬ ‪95- kate steiker-ginzberg, fact-checking Booms in Brazil, Poynter,‬ ‪april 24, 2017, accessible at:‬ https://bit. ly/2ihufvy ‪96- boyounglim, what’s behind south korea’s fact-checking boom? tense politics, and the decline of‬ investigative journalism”, Poynter, june 16, 2017, accessible at: https://bit.ly/2iil8zb‬ ‪97- countering illegal hate speech online #noplace4hate, European Comission, august 10, 2017, accessible‬ ‪at: https://bit.ly/2jwrxun‬ ‪98- natasha bach, this country is training high school students to be ‘fake news hunters’ ahead of its next‬ election, fortune, october 19, 2017, accessible at: https://for.tn/2jcljy5‬ ‪99- jane cordy, the social media revolution: political and security implications, op.cit., p. 14.‬ ‪100- klára votavová and jakub janda, making online platforms responsible for news content, kremlin watch‬ ‪report, july 2017, (p. 18), accessible at: https://bit.ly/2iih4e4‬ ‪101- Anton Hermansyah, Indonesia, Google To Use Trusted Flagger Program to Filter Out Internet Content,‬ ‪The Jakarta Post, August 4, 2017, accessible at: https://bit.ly/2JUUOsG‬ ‪102- Facebook publishes fake news ads in UK papers, BBC, May 8, 2017, accessible at: https://bbc.in/2qRDV8L‬ ‪103- Jen Weedon (et al.), Information Operations and Facebook, Op.Cit., p. 5.‬ ‪104- Automation rules,Twitter, November 3, 2017, accessible at: https://bit.ly/2Ek4Dgl‬ ‪105- Klára Votavová and Jakub Janda, Making online platforms responsible for news‬ content, ‪Op.cit., pp. 17 – 18.‬ ‪106- Kai Shu (et al.), Fake News Detection on Social Media: A Data Mining Perspective, Op.Cit., p. 22.‬ ‪107- Christopher Dornan, Dezinformatsiya: The past, present and future of ‘fake news’, (Series of‬ ‪reflection papers, Canadian Commission for UNESCO, March 2017), (pp. 10-11), accessible at: https://‬ bit.ly/2whWtXd

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