What is string the­ory? Why is it con­sid­ered to be the the­ory of ev­ery­thing?

All About Space - - Michio Kaku -

String the­ory is a sin­gle equa­tion that al­lows us to sum­marise all the laws of the uni­verse. Ein­stein spent 30 years of his life chas­ing af­ter the the­ory of ev­ery­thing. He wanted an equa­tion no more than one inch long that would al­low us to “read the mind of God”.

We have two great the­o­ries of the uni­verse. We have the quan­tum the­ory, the the­o­ries that are very small, which give us lasers and atomic bombs and iPods and iPads and the In­ter­net. That’s the quan­tum the­ory, the the­ory of the very small. Then we have the the­ory of the very big. Ein­stein’s the­ory of grav­ity and black holes and Big Bangs, but these two the­o­ries hate each other. These two the­o­ries don’t like each other, so why would na­ture cre­ate a left hand and a right hand that don’t talk to each other? That’s crazy!

So we think that there is one the­ory that uni­fies the quan­tum the­ory with rel­a­tiv­ity, and that is string the­ory. Why do we have so many par­ti­cles? We have elec­trons, neu­trons and neu­tri­nos. We spend bil­lions of dol­lars build­ing atom smash­ers to find more and more par­ti­cles. [There are] 36 quarks and 19 free pa­ram­e­ters in the stan­dard model, and we think that all these sub­atomic par­ti­cles are noth­ing but mu­si­cal notes. Mu­si­cal notes on a tiny vi­brat­ing string, and what is physics? Physics is har­monies, the laws of har­monies of tiny vi­brat­ing strings, that’s physics. What is chem­istry? Chem­istry is noth­ing but the melodies. The melodies you can play when these strings bump into each other, cre­at­ing mol­e­cules. What is the uni­verse? The uni­verse is a sym­phony, a sym­phony of strings, so then what is “the mind of God”? The mind of God is cos­mic mu­sic res­onat­ing through 11-di­men­sional hy­per­space.

What is mat­ter? Why do we have plan­ets and stars and galax­ies? Why is there life and Deoxyri­bonu­cleic acid (DNA)? It’s noth­ing but mu­sic. Mu­sic is the only par­a­digm rich enough to ex­plain elec­trons, neu­tri­nos, pro­tons, DNA, stars and galax­ies. It’s the only par­a­digm rich enough to ex­plain the uni­verse, and that’s what string the­ory is. String the­ory is con­sid­ered to be the the­ory of ev­ery­thing, ex­plain­ing that we are noth­ing but mu­si­cal notes and melodies played beau­ti­fully on vi­brat­ing strings.

Ev­ery­day ob­jects From huge galax­ies down to tiny grains of sand, ev­ery­thing comes down to the same fun­da­men­tal strings. Crys­tal lat­tice

Delv­ing deeper into a grain of sand would re­veal a sys­tem of atoms con­nected by chem­i­cal bonds. El­e­men­tary par­ti­cles Par­ti­cles such as elec­trons are made up of the most fun­da­men­tal con­stituents of mat­ter, in­clud­ing quarks and lep­tons. In­di­vid­ual atoms

Each atom is made up of even more minis­cule par­ti­cles, with elec­trons sur­round­ing a nu­cleus of pro­tons and neu­trons. Su­per­strings

String the­ory sug­gests that it is tiny vi­brat­ing strings of en­ergy that make up the el­e­men­tary par­ti­cles.

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