What is string theory? Why is it considered to be the theory of everything?
String theory is a single equation that allows us to summarise all the laws of the universe. Einstein spent 30 years of his life chasing after the theory of everything. He wanted an equation no more than one inch long that would allow us to “read the mind of God”.
We have two great theories of the universe. We have the quantum theory, the theories that are very small, which give us lasers and atomic bombs and iPods and iPads and the Internet. That’s the quantum theory, the theory of the very small. Then we have the theory of the very big. Einstein’s theory of gravity and black holes and Big Bangs, but these two theories hate each other. These two theories don’t like each other, so why would nature create a left hand and a right hand that don’t talk to each other? That’s crazy!
So we think that there is one theory that unifies the quantum theory with relativity, and that is string theory. Why do we have so many particles? We have electrons, neutrons and neutrinos. We spend billions of dollars building atom smashers to find more and more particles. [There are] 36 quarks and 19 free parameters in the standard model, and we think that all these subatomic particles are nothing but musical notes. Musical notes on a tiny vibrating string, and what is physics? Physics is harmonies, the laws of harmonies of tiny vibrating strings, that’s physics. What is chemistry? Chemistry is nothing but the melodies. The melodies you can play when these strings bump into each other, creating molecules. What is the universe? The universe is a symphony, a symphony of strings, so then what is “the mind of God”? The mind of God is cosmic music resonating through 11-dimensional hyperspace.
What is matter? Why do we have planets and stars and galaxies? Why is there life and Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)? It’s nothing but music. Music is the only paradigm rich enough to explain electrons, neutrinos, protons, DNA, stars and galaxies. It’s the only paradigm rich enough to explain the universe, and that’s what string theory is. String theory is considered to be the theory of everything, explaining that we are nothing but musical notes and melodies played beautifully on vibrating strings.
Everyday objects From huge galaxies down to tiny grains of sand, everything comes down to the same fundamental strings. Crystal lattice
Delving deeper into a grain of sand would reveal a system of atoms connected by chemical bonds. Elementary particles Particles such as electrons are made up of the most fundamental constituents of matter, including quarks and leptons. Individual atoms
Each atom is made up of even more miniscule particles, with electrons surrounding a nucleus of protons and neutrons. Superstrings
String theory suggests that it is tiny vibrating strings of energy that make up the elementary particles.