How will the Earth end?

All About Space - - Harpercollins -

i would say the most likely fate for earth as we know it will come from within. Whether it is a nu­clear war, mu­tated virus, cli­mate catas­tro­phe or col­lapse of civil­i­sa­tion, one only needs to look at his­tory to see where the fu­ture may go. that’s part of my rea­son for be­liev­ing hu­man­ity should es­tab­lish a sec­ond bio­sphere to safe­guard civil­i­sa­tion, cul­ture and tech­nol­ogy from our mis­takes, sort of like seed banks.

those man-made col­lapses would still yield the most life-friendly planet in the So­lar Sys­tem. We have a long time un­til the Sun turns into a red gi­ant and our oceans boil away. hope­fully we will be out of the So­lar Sys­tem by then. there is al­ways the Jo­vian sys­tem that might be more hab­it­able as the Sun gets big­ger.

long be­fore the Sun starts to die, earth will be im­pacted by a large as­ter­oid or comet, per­haps at the same scale of the im­pact event 65 mil­lion years ago. But life even sur­vived then, and earth re­turned to a hab­it­able state. again, if we had a sec­ond bio­sphere, hu­man civil­i­sa­tion could re­turn

to earth once it was hab­it­able.

“hu­man­ity should es­tab­lish a sec­ond bio­sphere to safe­guard civil­i­sa­tion, cul­ture

and tech­nol­ogy from our mis­takes”

Dr Pa­trick Trout­man is a se­nior sys­tems en­gi­neer at NASA’s Lan­g­ley Re­search Cen­ter

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