Born in 1157 to Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine, Richard I ‘the Lionheart’ succeeded his father as king of England, and also ruled over much of what we today know as France. His decade-long reign was characterised by his involvement in the Third Crusade, of which he was a key Christian commander. Spanning three years (1189-92), the crusade aimed to retake Jerusalem from the Muslim leader Saladin. Despite being ultimately unsuccessful in this goal, the campaign led to the recapture of the ports of Acre and Jaffa. Richard’s role in the military effort has led to him often being seen as a heroic, almost mythic figure.