BBC History Magazine - - The Brutal Thirty Years’ War -

A mi­nor­ity of dis­con­tented princes – led by Fred­er­ick IV, the Elec­tor Pala­tine – form the Protes

tant Union. Duke Max­i­m­il­ian of Bavaria re­sponds in 1609 with the Catholic League as im­pe­rial pol­i­tics po­larise over re­li­gious and con­sti­tu­tional is­sues.

Fred­er­ick IV, one of the founders of the Protes­tant Union

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