FLAPPING SIMPLE – BUT IT COMBINES SEVERAL PROCESSES AT ONCE. THE DETAILS ARE COMPLEX FOR US TO UNDERSTAND.
the outer wing moving up and down more than the inner wing, the primary feathers also twist downwards slightly on the downstroke. Kings of continuous flapping, golden plovers have relatively flat wings that sacrifice some lift (the aerofoil effect is reduced) but have the equal and opposite effect of reducing drag by friction.
Golden plover wings are also comparatively narrow from front to back, limiting drag in the same way as albatross wings, and they are pointed at the ends and swept back, both of which limit air turbulence. A pointed wing guides the air towards the tip, limiting the turbulence immediately behind the bird. In many respects, a golden plover has a similar wing shape to a swallow.