Wooden flooring EXPLAINED
We demystify the many different options now available, from hardwood and engineered to laminate and parquet
What are the differences between solid wood, engineered and
laminate flooring? Engineered flooring consists of layers of ply that have been bonded together with a top layer of solid wood. The advantage of engineered flooring rather than solid wood is that it has less tendency to expand and contract – meaning that it can be used with underfloor heating and in areas where moisture and temperature levels may vary, such as bathrooms or kitchens. ‘Also, no pre-fitting acclimatisation period is needed, unlike solid boards that have to sit for a minimum of a week on site before fitting,’ adds Daniel Bloom, co-founder of Ecora. Another option is laminate flooring, which is made from a compressed fibreboard plank covered by a photographic image of wood, with a protective overlay. Should I consider using reclaimed wood? Absolutely! ‘The charm of a reclaimed wood floor is hard to define and impossible to replicate,’ enthuses Robert Walsh, founder of Ted Todd. ‘ Wood flooring that has been crafted from reclaimed wood, whether engineered or solid, not only gives the timber a new lease of life, but also prevents the need for more trees to be harvested, so has the lowest environmental impact of any floorcovering.’ What are the options for fixing wooden flooring together?
Tongue and groove is the most traditional type of floor fixing. The tongue (a protruding edge) fits into a perfectly sized gap (the groove) to allow two planks to slot together; it is secret nailed, secret screwed (the nail or screw goes through the tongue and is not visible from the surface), glued directly onto the subfloor, or can be floated over an underlay. Modern click-fit wooden boards, where two planks fit together and audibly ‘click’ into place, are easier and quicker to install, but are not suitable for solid wood flooring. How are intricate parquet floors laid? From the middle of the room, working outwards. The most popular patterns are herringbone, brick bond and diagonal basket weave. Your chosen pattern does not affect the installation method. It is important to leave a gap of around 12mm around the edge of the room (which will be covered by skirting), so that the parquet can expand if necessary. What about finishes? Before choosing a finish for your wood, think about the look you are trying to achieve, the environment the floor will be used in and the amount of maintenance you are prepared to take on. ‘For high-traffic areas, go for a lacquered finish, which requires virtually no maintenance,’ advises Ecora’s Daniel Bloom. ‘The drawback is that scratches are hard to mask and the floor will typically require a full sanding after about seven to ten years.’ Scratches on oiled floors are easier to maintain by applying a new coat every year or so. Also consider colour. ‘The spectrum of shades you can achieve with traditional oils is limited, especially when clients are looking for different modern tones, such as grey. In theory, any colour can be achieved with a varnish or lacquer,’ advises Darren Hopkins, founder of Root London. Any other options? As well as lacquer and oils, unfinished wood can go through various processes such as brushing – where the planks are roller brushed during the manufacturing process to create a textured surface that highlights the grain – and distressing, which adds extra marks so the wood appears older than it is.