Take out all dead, diseased and damaged wood and any weak or spindly growth. Create an open, chalice shape by removing growth in the middle of the plant. Cut back remaining shoots to four to six buds from the point where last year’s growth began. If you live in a frost-prone area and you’re pruning early, don’t cut back so hard. If resultant new growth is hit by frost, there will still be buds you can prune back to. Regularly remove the oldest shoots so that the rose is constantly reinvigorated. Floribunda roses are pruned in a similar way (see caption, p35).