DOSSIER Bird declines pace, particularly in the tropics, where demand for commodities such as coffee, cocoa, sugar, palm oil and soya has seen land use change. In Europe and the USA, land that has long been farmed has become even more intensively industrialised and less bird friendly. As Harper puts it, this creates the ‘biggest challenge’ as it involves competition between the need to grow food and the need to allow the natural world to function. So severe are the pressures facing UK birds that the RSPB says it has effectively had to triage certain groups 20 . Geographical
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