More than Genetic resources Deep-sea minerals 900,000 KM2 Ocean biodiversity is of particular interest to bioprospectors because many organisms have evolved to thrive under extreme conditions of pressure, temperature, salinity, or darkness, making their genetic code the subject of commercial interest for a wide range of industries (e.g. pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, chemicals). Rising demand for metals to sustain the development of new technology has led to a recent surge of interest in minerals from the deep sea. Exploitation regulations are expected to be approved within the next two years. of the seabed in areas within national jurisdiction is now covered by exploratory mining licenses... ... that’s the size of Venezuela. Additional licenses have been granted for more than 1.3m km2 in areas beyond national jurisdictions. 13,171 OC EA N FO R MA TE RI AL S genetic sequences from 865 marine species have been associated with patents. Cables Today, 99% of international telecommunications is carried over 1.3 million km of undersea cables, offering more reliability, speed, capacity and cost advantages than satellite communications. The very first submarine communication cable was telegraphic and had a capacity of ten words per minute. Shipping The ocean has been and still is central to globalisation. The introduction of container shipping in the late 1960s revolutionised maritime transport. 1.3M KM In 2018, the world’s commercial shipping fleet consisted of of undersea cables... 94,171 vessels, accounting for more than 80% of global trade by volume and more than 70% of its value. 2020 2010 2000 ... enough to stretch 32 times round the Earth. Shipping growth by decade 1990 1980 Marine protected areas 40 60 20 0 Million TEUs Spatial claims on the ocean are also aimed at limiting resource exploitation, most prominently through the designation of marine protected areas (MPAs). Coastal states have committed to safeguard at least 10% of the marine environment by 2020, but scientists and nongovernmental organisations have begun calling for a more ambitious coverage of at least 30%. Renewable energy Marine renewable energies derived from wind or waves are among the solutions with the greatest potential for meeting the increasing global energy demand while reducing carbon emissions. Offshore wind produced 23,000 megawatts of energy in 2018, up from 1,000 megawatts in 2007. 30 Progress toward these targets has accelerated over the past few years, with more than 16,500 MPAs covering Marine protected areas growth by decade 20 7.5% 10 18 Offshore wind has the potential to generate more than 420,000 TWh per year worldwide – more than 18 times global electricity demand today. of the ocean. 0 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 . October 2020 51
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