Hayes & Harlington Gazette - - Armistice Day: 100 Years On -

Arch Duke Franz Fer­di­nand, the heir to the Aus­tri­aHun­gar­ian throne, is shot dead in Sara­jevo by a po­lit­i­cal dis­si­dent.

Aus­tria-Hun­gary sends troops to the Ser­bian border.

Ser­bia and Rus­sia mo­bilise their armies. Aus­tria-Hun­gary de­clares war on Ser­bia. Ger­many de­clares war on Rus­sia. Ger­many de­clares war on France. Bri­tain de­clares war on Ger­many af­ter they in­vade Bel­gium. USA de­clares neu­tral­ity. A Royal Navy cruiser is sunk by Ger­man mines in the North Sea, killing 150 men and in­flict­ing the first ca­su­al­ties on Bri­tain. First mem­bers of the British Ex­pe­di­tionary Force ar­rive in France to as­sist with the land cam­paign. Lord Kitch­ener makes his first call for more men to en­list in the mil­i­tary. De­fence of the Realm Act (DORA) gives the UK gov­ern­ment sweep­ing pow­ers to sup­press pub­lic crit­i­cism and im­prison peo­ple without trial in or­der to aid the war ef­fort. First bat­tle of Ypres be­gins as Al­lied and Ger­man troops at­tempt to reach sea ports in Bel­gium. Bri­tain and the Ot­toman Empire de­clare war on each other. Ger­man bat­tle­ships bom­bard Hartle­pool, Whitby and Scar­bor­ough, killing 137 civil­ians. Al­lied troops land at Gal­lipoli un­der heavy fire. The first Zep­pelin raid on Lon­don kills seven peo­ple. Suf­fragette Em­me­line Pankhurst or­gan­ises the ‘Right to Serve’ march in Lon­don call­ing for women to be al­lowed to work to help with the war ef­fort. Bat­tle of Loos be­gins and the British forces use gas for the first time, how­ever wind blows it back onto their own troops, killing seven and in­jur­ing 2,625. The third day of the Bat­tle of Loos sees the high­est British death toll of any bat­tle so far, with 8,246 men be­ing killed. Bat­tle of Ver­dun, which causes al­most a mil­lion ca­su­al­ties over 10 months, be­gins. The Bat­tle of Jut­land be­gins be­tween Ger­man and Royal Navy fleets of dread­noughts. Nei­ther side claims de­ci­sive vic­tory and no other naval bat­tles are fought for the rest of the war. Ger­man U-boat tor­pe­does British pas­sen­ger liner Lusi­ta­nia, pic­tured below, drown­ing al­most 1,200 peo­ple in­clud­ing many chil­dren. Right: A sailor pays his re­spects to vic­tims. British tanks used for the first time in the Bat­tle of Flers-Courcelette. David Lloyd Ge­orge be­comes British Prime Min­is­ter. Tsar Nicholas II ab­di­cates as Moscow falls to the Rus­sian Rev­o­lu­tion. Amer­ica de­clares war on Ger­many and be­gins to mo­bilise troops im­me­di­ately. Ger­many launches the first ma­jor bomb­ing raid on Lon­don, killing 162 peo­ple. The Bat­tle of Pass­chen­daele ends with the Al­lies hav­ing ad­vanced five miles and suf­fer­ing half a mil­lion ca­su­al­ties. The Treaty of Brest-Li­tovsk sees Rus­sia agree a peace deal with Ger­many and its al­lies. The Royal Fam­ily drops its Ger­manic name Saxe-Coburg-Gotha in favour of Wind­sor. Sailors in the Ger­man High Seas Fleet mutiny and refuse to fight the Royal Navy. Armistice ne­go­ti­a­tions be­gin. The King of Ger­many, Kaiser Wil­helm II, ab­di­cates and flees to Hol­land.

The Armistice is signed, end­ing the war be­tween Ger­many and the Al­lies.

Henry Gun­ther, a US soldier of Ger­man de­scent, is the last man to be killed in ac­tion.

The Armistice comes into ef­fect. The Treaty of Ver­sailles is signed.

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