Bat­tles, sieges and con­quests

Although Nor­man knights fought in Ibe­ria, the Balkans and the Near East, their most di­rect im­pact was felt in Nor­mandy, the Bri­tish Isles and south­ern Italy

History of War - - ISSUE 60 -

Nor­man armies had a huge in­flu­ence across much of Europe

BAT­TLE OF CIVITATE

18 JUNE 1053 FOG­GIA, APU­LIA, ITALY Humphrey de Hauteville de­feats a pa­pal coali­tion and Pope Leo IX is taken pris­oner. The bat­tle is the cul­mi­na­tion of years of Nor­man mer­ce­nary cam­paign­ing in south­ern Italy.

BAT­TLE OF MORTE­MER

1054 MORTE­MER, NOR­MANDY, FRANCE Henry I of France oc­cu­pies the Nor­man town of Morte­mer but is de­feated when Wil­liam the Bas­tard (later the 'Con­queror') sets the town alight. Wil­liam’s vic­tory en­ables him to se­cure his po­si­tion as duke of Nor­mandy.

BAT­TLE OF VARAVILLE

AU­GUST 1057 VARAVILLE, NOR­MANDY, FRANCE Af­ter Morte­mer, Henry I of France de­cides to con­quer Nor­mandy, but Duke Wil­liam sur­prises the French as they cross a ford. Many of Henry’s men drown, and the king aban­dons any fur­ther at­tempts to re­duce Wil­liam’s power.

BAT­TLE OF CERAMI

JUNE 1063 CERAMI, SI­CILY, ITALY Cerami is a ma­jor vic­tory against Mus­lim forces in Si­cily. Roger de Hauteville (Roger I of Si­cily) routs Kal­bid and Zirid forces. The bat­tle en­ables the Nor­mans to cap­ture Palermo.

BAT­TLE OF HAST­INGS

14 OC­TO­BER 1066 BAT­TLE, EAST SUS­SEX, ENG­LAND Hast­ings marks the high point of Nor­man mil­i­tary might. eng­land is con­quered in one bat­tle, where Duke Wil­liam of Nor­mandy de­feats and kills Harold II, the last An­glo-saxon english king.

CON­STRUC­TION OF THE WHITE TOWER

1078-1100 LON­DON, ENG­LAND Stone cas­tles are the most for­mi­da­ble mil­i­tary sym­bol of Nor­man au­thor­ity. Wil­liam the Con­queror builds the most fa­mous cas­tle in Lon­don, which is known as the 'White Tower'.

SIEGE OF WEXFORD

MAY 1169 WEXFORD, COUNTY WEXFORD, IRE­LAND Robert Fitzstephen leads an ex­pe­di­tionary force of Nor­man soldiers to as­sist Diar­mait Mac Mur­chada in south­east Ire­land, and they ad­vance on Wexford. The town falls and Wexford comes un­der Nor­man con­trol, along with ar­eas of south­east Le­in­ster.

SIEGE OF CHÂTEAU GAIL­LARD

AU­GUST 1203 - 6 MARCH 1204 CHÂTEAU GAIL­LARD Philip II of France wrests con­trol of Nor­mandy from King John of eng­land by be­sieg­ing Château Gail­lard. ev­ery siege tech­nique is used to take the cas­tle, in­clud­ing min­ing tun­nels, us­ing Greek fire and siege en­gines, and even climb­ing up a toi­let chute.

“STONE CAS­TLES ARE THE MOST FOR­MI­DA­BLE MIL­I­TARY SYM­BOL OF NOR­MAN AU­THOR­ITY”

LEFT: A Nor­man force al­lies with the Ir­ish of Le­in­ster to be­siege Water­ford. The Nor­mans are led by Richard de Clare, Sec­ond Earl of Pem­broke, who be­comes known as 'Strong­bow' Wil­liam the Con­queror is wounded while fight­ing his el­dest son Robert Curthose dur­ing a bat­tle at Ger­beroy

Nor­man knights at­tack An­glo-saxon soldiers who have formed a shield wall at Hast­ings. Cavalry plays a de­ci­sive part in Wil­liam the Con­queror’s vic­tory The White Tower is the most com­plete 11th-cen­tury cas­tle in ex­is­tence and was one of the largest in Chris­ten­dom. It forms the cen­tral part of the Tower of Lon­don The present-day ru­ins of Château Gail­lard rep­re­sent the Nor­mans’ de­cline and in­abil­ity to de­fend their own duchy from di­rect French rule

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