ARMS AND ARMOUR
The Mongols travelled swift and light, but were always ready for battle
In common with other civilisations, Mongols wore rounded helmets as they deflected arrows.
Shirts made of silk were worn under the armour. Arrows tended not to puncture silk, so it would wrap around an arrow when a warrior was hit, making it easier to remove.
Most warriors fought as light cavalry. Armour would be made of hardened leather or iron, which weighed less and was more flexible than European mail.
Mongol swords were a slightly curved scimitar, perfect for slashing attacks and cut-andthrust combat.
Metal stirrups made it easier for Mongol warriors to twist in the saddle, so they could fire arrows in any direction. This allowed them to use highly effective feigned retreats.
Wielding a mace on horseback was another deadly weapon. This elaborately decorated version suggests it belonged to a warrior of high status.