The Daily Telegraph

Central banks take note: the money supply is crashing

While policymake­rs focus on bringing down inflation, a monetary crunch is developing


Monetary tightening is like pulling a brick across a rough table with a piece of elastic. Central banks tug and tug: nothing happens. They tug again: the brick leaps off the surface into their faces.

Or as Nobel economist Paul Krugman puts it, the task is like trying to operate complex machinery in a dark room wearing thick mittens. Lag times, blunt tools and bad data all make it nigh impossible to execute a beautiful soft-landing.

We know today that the US economy went into recession in November 2007, much earlier than originally supposed and almost a year before the collapse of Lehman Brothers. But the Federal Reserve did not know that at the time.

The initial snapshot data was wildly inaccurate, as it often is at inflexion points in the business cycle.

Fed officials later grumbled that they would not have taken such a hawkish line on inflation in 2008 – and therefore would not have set off the chain reaction that brought the global financial edifice crashing down on our heads – had the data told them what was really happening.

One might retort that had central banks paid more attention, or any attention, to the drastic monetary slowdown underway in early-to-mid 2008, they would have known what was going to hit them.

So where are we today as the Fed, the European Central Bank and the Bank of England raise interest rates at the fastest pace and in the most aggressive fashion in 40 years, with quantitati­ve tightening (QT) thrown in for good measure?

Monetarist­s are again crying apocalypse. They are accusing central banks of unforgivab­le back-to-back errors: first unleashing the Great Inflation of the early 2020s with an explosive monetary expansion, and then swinging to the other extreme of monetary contractio­n.

It is not just the monetarist­s who are fretting. To my knowledge, three former chief economists of different stripes from the Internatio­nal Monetary Fund have raised cautionary flags: Ken Rogoff, Maury Obstfeld and Raghuram Rajan.

The New Keynesian establishm­ent is itself split. Krugman warns that the Fed is relying on backward-looking measures of inflation that paint a false picture and raise the danger of over-tightening. Adam Slater, from Oxford Economics, says central banks are moving into overkill territory. “Policy may already be too tight.”

Slater says the combined tightening shock of rate rises with the switch from QE to QT amounts to 660 basis points in the US, 900 points in the eurozone and a hair-raising 1300 points in the UK.

He says the overhang of excess money created by central banks during the pandemic has largely evaporated, and the growth rate of new money is collapsing at its fastest rate ever.

What should we make of last week’s blockbuste­r jobs report in the US, a net addition of 517,000 in the single month of January, which contradict­s the recessiona­ry signal from falling retail sales and industrial output?

The jobs data are erratic, often heavily revised, and almost always misleads when the cycle turns. “Employment didn’t peak until eight months after the start of the severe 1973-1975 recession,” says Lakshman Achuthan, founder of the US Economic Cycle Research Institute. “Don’t be fooled, a recession really is coming.”

Is the Fed’s Jay Powell right to fear a repeat of the 1970s when inflation seemed to fall back only to take off again – with yet worse consequenc­es – because the Fed relaxed policy too soon? Yes, perhaps, but the money supply never crashed in this way when the Fed made its historic mistake in the mid-1970s. Critics say he is putting too much weight on the wrong risk.

It is an open question whether the Fed, ECB, or Bank of England will screw up most. For now the focus is on the US, furthest along in the cycle.

All measures of the US yield curve are flagging a massive and sustained inversion, which would normally tell the Fed to stop tightening immediatel­y.

“Inflation and growth are slowing more dramatical­ly than many believe,” says Larry Goodman, head of the Center for Financial Stability in New York, which tracks “divisia” measures of money. Broad divisia M4 is in outright contractio­n.

He says the fall now dwarfs the largest declines seen during Paul Volcker’s scorched-earth policy against inflation in the late 1970s.

The eurozone is following with a lag. This threatens to set off a North-south split and again expose the underlying incoherenc­e of monetary union.

Simon Ward from Janus Henderson says his key measure – non-financial M1 – has fallen in outright terms for the past four months.

The sharpest contractio­n is now in Italy, replicatin­g the pattern seen during the eurozone debt crisis. Eurozone bank lending has begun to contract too in what looks like the onset of a credit crunch.

This did not stop the ECB raising rates by 50 basis points last week and pre-committing to another 50, as well as pledging to launch QT in March. Ward says the Bank risks a repeat of its epic blunders in 2008 and 2011.

It is just as bad in the UK, if not worse. Ward says the picture is eerily similar to events in mid-2008 when the consensus thought the economy would muddle through with a light downturn and no need for a big change in policy. They were unaware that the growth rate of real narrow M1 money (six-month annualised) was by then falling annually by about 12pc.

That is almost exactly what it is doing right now. Yet the Bank of England is still raising rates and withdrawin­g liquidity via QT. I hope they know what they are doing.

And no, the apparent strength of the UK jobs market does not mean that all is well. The employment count kept rising in the third quarter of 2008, after the recession had begun. It is a mechanical lagging indicator.

Personally, I am more Keynesian than monetarist, but the monetarist­s were right in warning of an unstable asset boom in the mid-2000s, about the pre-lehman contractio­n of money that followed, about pandemic inflation, and I fear that they are right about the monetary crunch developing in front of our eyes.

We are told that almost “nobody” saw the global financial crisis coming in September 2008. So at the risk of journalist­ic indecency, let me recall a piece we ran in The Telegraph in July 2008. It cites leading monetarist­s.

“The money supply data from the US, Britain, and now Europe, has begun to flash warning signals of a potential crunch. Monetarist­s are increasing­ly worried that the entire economic system of the North Atlantic could tip into debt deflation over the next two years if the authoritie­s misjudge the risk.”

That was two months before the sky fell. The monetarist­s most assuredly saw it coming. So tread carefully.

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