The Independent



1812: One of the worst winters on record began – and caused the defeat of the mighty Napoleon. During his retreat from Moscow, troops endured temperatur­es as low as -37C for 27 consecutiv­e days.

1841: Edward VII, eldest son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert, was born. He was 61 when he was crowned and gave his

name to the Edwardian Age in English manners, fashion and literature.

1859: Flogging in the British army was abolished.

1881: Dr Thomas Kalmus, US inventor of Technicolo­r in 1912, was born.

1938: “Kristallna­cht” in Germany, when Nazis burned 267 synagogues and destroyed thousands of Jewish homes and businesses, smashing windows, which gave the night its name.

1940: Neville Chamberlai­n died just months after resigning as Britain’s wartime prime minister.

1953: Welsh poet Dylan Thomas, author of Under Milk Wood, died aged 39, after falling into an alcoholic coma following the consumptio­n of 18 stiff whiskies.

1979: A computer fault led to a full-scale nuclear alert in the United States.

1989: The East German government lifted the Iron Curtain to allow free travel through the Berlin Wall. Thousands of East Berliners swarmed through the crossing points.

On this day last year: England and Manchester United striker Marcus Rashford was awarded an MBE by the Duke of Cambridge for his campaign to support vulnerable children.


Roger McGough, poet, 85; Lou Ferrigno, actor, 71; Karen Dotrice, actor, 67; Tony Slattery, actor and comedian, 63; Eric Dane, actor, 50; Delta Goodrem, singer, 38.

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 ?? (Getty) ?? Welsh poet Dylan Thomas died on this day aged 39
(Getty) Welsh poet Dylan Thomas died on this day aged 39

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