TIME­LINE

The New European - - Expertise -

1953

Prime min­is­ter Mo­ham­mad Mos­sadeq over­thrown in a coup en­gi­neered by British and US in­tel­li­gence ser­vices. The Shah re­turns from ex­ile

1978

The Shah’s au­thor­i­tar­ian rule leads to ri­ots, strikes and mass demon­stra­tions

1979

Un­able to main­tain con­trol, the Shah flees the coun­try while the Ay­a­tol­lah Ruhol­lah Khome­ini re­turns from his own ex­ile and the Is­lamic Repub­lic of Iran is pro­claimed fol­low­ing a ref­er­en­dum; Is­lamic mil­i­tants take 52 Amer­i­cans hostage in­side the US em­bassy in Tehran

1980 1981 The Iran-iraq war starts

The Amer­i­can hostages are re­leased, end­ing 444 days in cap­tiv­ity

1988

An Iran Air Air­bus is mis­tak­enly shot down by the USS Vin­cennes; the Iran-iraq war ends

1989

Ay­a­tol­lah Khome­ini is­sues a fatwa or­der­ing Mus­lims to kill Sal­man Rushdie be­cause of his novel,

The Satanic Verses

1995

US im­poses oil and trade sanc­tions over Iran’s al­leged spon­sor­ship of ter­ror­ism, quest for nu­clear arms, and hos­til­ity to the Is­raeli-pales­tinian peace process

2002

US pres­i­dent Ge­orge Bush lists Iran as part of an “axis of evil”

2005

Mah­moud Ah­madine­jad, Tehran’s ul­tra-con­ser­va­tive mayor, be­comes pres­i­dent

2007

Iran de­tains 15 British sailors and marines pa­trolling the mouth of the Shatt al-arab wa­ter­way sep­a­rat­ing Iran and Iraq, prompt­ing a diplo­matic stand-off

2012

EU boy­cott of Ira­nian oil ex­ports comes into ef­fect, amid in­ten­si­fy­ing dis­pute over Iran’s nu­clear pro­gramme

2013

Re­formist-backed cleric Has­san Rouhani wins pres­i­den­tial elec­tion

2015

World pow­ers reach a deal with Iran on lim­it­ing Ira­nian nu­clear ac­tiv­ity in re­turn for lift­ing of in­ter­na­tional eco­nomic sanc­tions

2017 2018

Mass protests in Iran over eco­nomic griev­ances Trump an­nounces the US with­drawal from the 2015 nu­clear deal. Iran warns that it will be­gin in­creas­ing ura­nium en­rich­ment ca­pac­ity if the deal col­lapses

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