1135: Henry I died “of a surfeit of lampreys”.
1581: Jesuit martyr Edmund Campion was hanged at Tyburn.
1640: The Portuguese drove out the Spanish to reclaim their independence.
1761: Madame Marie Tussaud, wax-works modeller, was born in Strasbourg.
1887: The 28th Beeton’s Christmas Annual went on sale. It featured A Study In Scarlet by A Conan Doyle, which introduced the detective Sherlock Holmes.
1906: The Cinema Omnia Pathe, the world’s first purpose-built picture palace, opened in Paris.
1959: Twelve countries signed an agreement to preserve Antarctica for peaceful scientific research.
1989: Pope John Paul II and Mikhail Gorbachev met in Rome to end 70 years of hostility between USSR and the Vatican.
1990: The two halves of the Channel Tunnel were joined.
2009: International agreement The Treaty of Lisbon, also known as the Reform Treaty, came into force.
The two halves of the Channel Tunnel met in 1990