(на английском языке)
KHVESYK MYKHAILO, BYSTRYAKOV IGOR, KLYNOVYY DMYTRO “Financial and economic mechanism of Ukraine’s reconstructive development on the bases of decentralized management of natural resources” – The article deals with determining the ways to ensure the process of intra system harmonization of interrelationships of economic and political transformations regarding Ukraine’s reconstructive development from the standpoint of model ideas about a promising financial and economic mechanism of decentralized management of natural resources.
The natural resource paradigm of reconstructive development is proposed. The emphasis is on formation of relations between economic entities specific to the liberal democratic model (in particular, regarding the ordering of natural resource relations). An important place is given to applying the latest financial and economic support for decentralized management of natural resources. The nature of relationship of the “natural resources” and “natural resource assets” categories is shown. The natural resources are considered precisely as a capital of natural origin, which can be directly involved in economic turnover, and therefore it has value as a commodity and a consumer value, that is, it is really capable of satisfying the needs of the population. The natural asset directly relates to simulation of determination of the reconstructive action directions and is a natural resource involved in economic turnover; or, one that can be immediately directly used in production of goods or provision of services. The main benchmark when improving the management structure of natural resource assets is related to the deepening of economic activity at the territorial level.
A significant place is given to streamlining the system of financial relations between business and government from the standpoint of developing a reconstructive economy in direction of forming a liberal social model of development.
Attention is focused on implementation of the reconstructive development concept. Such a concept for the effective use of natural resources of territories is considered as a process of predominantly cyclic nature. The process is represented by an appropriate algorithm based on the use of flexible management methods, taking into account the priority levers in the space time dimension.
LYPOV VOLODYMYR “Competitive strategy for Ukraine’s development in globalization conditions” – The natural resource and sociocultural potentials for the formation of competitive strategies for Ukraine’s integration into the global economy are considered. An attention is focused on contradictions of the influence of factors of the natural environment. These factors include the richness of natural resources and central location, which simultaneously create opportunities and form challenges for the development an independent economy. In particular, they predetermine the ambivalence of social orientations of values inherent in the national culture of management and formation of the phenomenon of “resource curse”, thus creating barriers to obtaining the international competitive advantages through the introduction of modern technologies. The influence of values on the formation of competitive strategies is considered. On the example of using the results of research of the distance of social trust of Ukrainians within the framework of the World Values Survey (2010 2014), the author shows the origins of the problem of building up an effective model of the capitalist system based on values, which at the same time deny both individual initiative and forms of social cooperation going beyond the close relatives. This limits the possibilities for the formation of models of corporation as a pool of capital (Anglo Saxon countries) or individuals (North and Central Europe (NCE) countries). At the same time, one and a half hundred years of experience of economic modernization denies traditional values of mutual responsibility of proprietor and hired worker, on which the patriarchal corporations of South East Asia (SEA) are built. It is shown that such a situation predetermines the difference between the existing model of corporation state interaction and models of minimization of etatism or its avoidance (Anglo Saxon and NCE countries) or the idea of the state as a large corporation (SEA countries). The situation with forming the oligarchic clan structure refers to the receipt of rental income through exploitation of the state resources. The emphasis is placed on the need to take into account the requirements for supporting the complementarity elements of the national culture of management and institutional structure of the forming economic model. The instruments of institutional transformations, which can be used in the process of formation of competitive strategies of Ukraine (institutional bricolage, recombination, layering, translation, displacement, transplantation and growing), are considered.
TARASEVYCH VIKTOR, ZAVHORODNIA OLENA “Innovation information economy:
postindustriality, generativity, openness” – Actual problems of postindustrial innovation information economy in the context of European choice of Ukraine under conditions of global transformations are being considered. The innovation information economy is characterized as a leading component, source, generator and core of self development of the postindustrial economy, progressive evolution of the national economy and society. First of all, it concerns neos innovations of substantive type and knowledge intensive information as a form of representation of scientific knowledge, the effective means of directed updating and transformation of the ecogenes and economic genome of national economic actors, engine of their creative activity. Modern innovation information revolution determines the objective character of the laws of scientific intellectualization and innovative informatization of economic activity.
A unique innovation generating role of knowledge and knowledge intensive information is determined, in particular, by their substrate qualities, including: almost absolute metamorphism, indifference to carrier material, increased mobility, an ability to be subject to appropriation without proper alienation, an effective integrator of production factors and a catalyst for innovation capital formation, a moderator of the cyclic co evolution of the basic components of the innovation information economy. In reproductive economic processes, knowledge and knowledge intensive information are represented directly as special essential forces of economic participants and in the form of innovation information products (in non market sphere of reproduction) or innovation information goods (in market sphere of reproduction). These products and goods are carriers of the basic qualitative characteristics of knowledge and knowledge intensive information, which allows them to be the leading “players” of the global economy.
The creative potential of development inherent in the innovation information economy can be realized only under conditions of its nationally oriented openness to the leading global trends and processes, in particular: (i) comprehensive knowledge intensive informatization and computerization; (ii) active creative development of the economy and society; (iii) actualization of economic creativity and freedom; (iv) competitive cooperation and civilized struggle; (v) expansion of mobile and highly professional human capital. The innovation information economy should become a powerful vanguard of the national development.
ZALOZNOVA JULIYA “Ukraine’s industry: modern challenges and development problems” – Ukraine’s industry is now going through a difficult stage, being under pressure of new geopolitical, geo economic, technological and social changes. Therefore, it becomes important to find effective solutions regarding the systematic updating of industrial model of Ukraine, adequate to new global challenges and national interests. Scientific and practical discussion on problems of industrial development and new industrial policy in Ukraine lasts for several years. However, the aspects of effective inclusion of Ukraine’s industry in process of neo industrialization, which is a leading global trend, are still insufficiently highlighted.
It is emphasized that due to present state of deep deindustrialization in Ukraine, it is impossible to provide adequate responses to the current challenges to national security and economic sovereignty of the Ukrainian state, global competitiveness of domestic economy, full fledged subjectivity of Ukraine in international processes and structures, and social and environmental responsibility.
The main problems, which will have a significant impact on conditions of the formation of a new industry in Ukraine according to neo industrial scenario, are highlighted. These problems will also determine the main directions and instruments of the state industrial policy. As the most significant, the author called the problems caused by de industrialization: unsatisfactory volumes, pace, structure of production and lack of investment, innovations and qualified personnel. Risks are also associated with a large share of informal economy (shadowing) and informal employment. The reforming is also significantly constrained by the absence of a strategic parity interaction between government and business. Special attention should be paid to the problem of regulating and protecting the property rights, primarily intellectual property rights. The problem of Crimea and Donbas will also have a controversial impact on growth potential and structural changes in the industry.
The strategy of Ukraine’s industrial development should be focused on overcoming these strategically significant problems. It is stressed that the chance for a tangible increase in efficiency of industrial production, which is provided by neo industrialization, should be implemented on a tight schedule based on effective industrial policy.
MANDYBURA VIKTOR, KHYZHNYAK VLADYSLAVA “The main contradiction of consumer market relations and ways to overcome it” – In the context of European integration, Ukraine has committed itself to ensure a high level of consumer rights protection and to achieve consistency between consumer rights protection systems in Ukraine and the EU. First of all, this concerns the introduction of high standards of responsibility in the consumer sphere, which are currently valid in the EU, into domestic practice. Primarily, this concerns the improvement of the system of adequate economic responsibility of business for of consumer rights violation.
The main contradiction of consumer market is connected with the opposite of interests of its main subjects: business producers (sellers), on the one hand, and the population, or end users of life’s goods – on the other. This contradiction is a system of relations that arise between interests of producers and sellers seeking to maximize personal profits and interests of the population, which seeks to meet personal needs for consumption of goods and services that are safe for health and life. Under certain conditions of disparity in implementation of private interests and inadequate economic responsibility of business for violating the consumer rights, this contradiction may become aggravated and turn into antagonistic one.
Today, legally fixed economic sanctions for cases of criminal violations of consumer rights are calculated by the normatively determined number of non taxable minimum income of citizens. These sanctions from the point of view of their economic conformity with the losses incurred by end users, are completely unacceptable. Therefore, further use of the non taxable minimum as a base value when determining the amount of economic sanctions for a criminal violation of consumer rights is inadmissible. At the same time, all other social and economic norms and standards, in particular, minimum wage, living wage, etc., cannot be used as a normative base quantity (this is confirmed by domestic and world practice). Instead of the non taxable minimum of citizens’ incomes, it is necessary to introduce a normative base quantity, which in its essence is: (i) quantity of the scale fixed value; (ii) determined on the basis of using the indicators of income base of the consolidated state budget and fixed in UAH terms; (iii) acting during the current fiscal year.
SUHINA OLENA “Methodological approach to determine amount of differential mining rent” – Residents of leading foreign countries with a developed mining industry are citizens rentiers. The Association Agreement between Ukraine and the EU prompts the Government of Ukraine to reduce poverty. Therefore, it is necessary to optimize the withdrawal mechanism of mining rent and its fair distribution between the owner of the subsoil – the Ukrainian people – and subsoil users. The essence of the author’s original methodology for determining the amount of differential mining rent to establish rental payments for the use of subsoil for extraction of minerals, adequate to modern economic realities, is revealed. An economic mechanism for the fair distribution of mining rent is proposed.
The author has proved the presence of a significant unaccounted cash flow, which should become the basis for the revival of our state and transformation of each Ukrainian into a citizen rentier. To do this, it is necessary to form a new system of mining rent withdrawal. The system should be based on taxation of surplus profits of subsoil users – the surplus, that is, the difference between profits received by subsoil user and average marginal profit over the branch of extractive industry.
To the further development of the theory of a rent, it has been worked out: (i) methodological approach to determine the amount of differential mining rent; (ii) algorithm and the author’s methodology for determining the amount of differentiated rent payments for the use of subsoil for extraction of minerals, taking into account mining, geological and other conditions for extraction of minerals; (iii) economic mechanism for mining rent withdrawal from subsoil users, which is the scientific novelty of this study. Then the rent will correspond to the essence of a rent, that is, will take into account mining, geological and other conditions for the extraction of minerals, market conditions, and to a certain extent the degree of risk. When mining conditions deteriorate, mineral resources are exhausted, their production costs increase, profits are reduced, then subsoil users must pay lower taxes. Calculations carried out within the framework of the proposed mechanism make it possible to determine which iron producing enterprises in Ukraine have to pay mining rent. Implementation of the author’s methodology will preserve the function of the rent as an economic tool for regulating the mining relations in the field of subsoil use and will contribute to the “working status” of art. 13 of the Constitution of Ukraine, as well as to the formation of a civil property institute on mineral raw materials and a fund of civil dividends.