РЕЗЮМЕ (англійською мовою)
Kredisov A. I. “Theoretical approaches to the study of stages of market economy
development” – Market relations have been considered since the period of primitive society. Its economy cannot be called market one, however even in the times of natural economy there existed an exchange of consumer goods, which resulted in a special kind of activity – trade. It was for the convenience of the exchange that people invented money, and over time, there also a banking industry arose. Economic institutions, as dominant in human relations, are gradually changing political and social institutions, and with them the formational structure of society is also changed.
Classical school of economic science theoretically comprehended the principles of bourgeois society, which became a market economy. Under its conditions, labor and consumer goods are not just the wealth of society. Labor determines the value of these benefits, makes them a capital, that is, the value that brings added value (profit). The pursuit of profit and the entrepreneurial spirit of the owner of capital have determined the progressiveness of capitalism, as well as the essence of the capitalist mode of production.
Over time, the capitalist mode of production under conditions of economic freedom faced a number of hard to solve problems: first of all, with regard to the achievement of social equality and justice and the lack of necessary democracy not only in political and social life of society but also in management of production. This involves social transformation (socialization) of the market economy, as well as political and social institutions of society as a whole. So, modern economic institutions are becoming more dependent on them than they were before. Evidence of this is economic consequences of numerous socio political events of the late 20th and early 21st centuries: collapse of the USSR, migration of population in many countries, separatism, terrorism, arms race, Brexit, and so on.
Thus, the study of the current stage of market economy today must be carried out in conjunction with the analysis of development of political and social institutions. It is also important to take into account the effectiveness of global economic management and assess the effectiveness and influence of leading international organizations (UN, IMF, ILO, World Bank, WTO, etc.). Only such systematic research can identify problems and outline the ways of civilizational transformations of developed capitalist and developing countries that have embarked on the path of development of market economies.
Onyshchenko V. P. “Social preconditions for economic development of Ukraine” – Although social preconditions for Ukraine’s economic development are recognized as important, the overwhelming majority of publications focus on its purely economic problems (such as industrial development, innovation, efficiency, etc.).
Fundamental importance of civilizational attitudes of Ukraine’s population, its culture and social capital for economic development of Ukraine is shown.
To determine the deep content of the problem of Ukraine’s backwardness, the author turns to works on the theory of divergence of economic development of countries (by such scientists as D. North, L. Harrison, E. Helpman, E. Phelps, D. Acemoglu and J. Robinson and others) and comes to conclusions that (i) culture and institutions are interrelated; (ii) the former gives the impetus for institutions’ changes; (iii) the former determines the preconditions that can eventually radically change a society.
It is shown that “historical track” of Ukraine and endogenous informal institutions cause considerable resistance to liberal reforms. The author believes that there are three strategies to overcome resistance and engraft institutions such as European ones: (i) “hard power”; (ii) “soft power”; (iii) “persistent soft power”.
It is asserted that culture and institutions form social capital of the state and change under its influence. Effectiveness of social capital implementation is determined by dynamics of economic development of the state and quality of its citizens’ life. In the context of social capital, the author examines the “free rider problem”, the problem of trust and shadow
economy and determines their state as indicators of the level of its development. The author emphasizes that for success of reforms the communicative influence on formation of a certain economic mentality and culture in society is of great importance.
Kasych A. O. “Modernization processes in Ukraine in the context of the world experience” – Theoretical, methodological and analytical issues of dynamics of modernization processes, which envisage modernization of both the economic system as a whole and individual spheres of society’s life, have been analyzed. The importance of researching the modernization processes in Ukraine is substantiated. It is noted that exactly the dynamics of modernization processes determines the ability of developing countries to overcome the lagging behind developed countries.
Classification features are considered and a generalized typology of modernization processes is presented; that allows forming a complex vision of their content. It is emphasized that it is multilevel and multi dimensional modernization that can provide real economic development of the system.
In the context of the most significant spheres of modernization (economic, social and environmental), a set of systematic indicators and their processing methods for analytical research is considered. Results of the analysis of dynamics of modernization processes in various countries of the world are presented: partial and integral indices of modernization were calculated and countries were ranked by the level of modernization. Peculiarities of economic, social and environmental modernization of various countries and Ukraine are determined. It is emphasized that modernization index is a sectional image of renewal processes of all spheres of activity and functioning of the country at a certain point in time. This index also allows monitoring the dynamics of modernization of individual countries in comparison with others.
An attention was paid to regularities of modernization processes, which were singled out on the basis of generalization of the world experience. It is noted that the priority tasks for Ukraine are: (i) forming a modernization strategy of the country with specification of the target tasks in the context of regulated periods of implementation; (ii) constructing a political system that can provide guidance on all social development for the purpose of modernization; (iii) creating the favorable political, legal, economic and institutional conditions for activation of modernization at all levels of functioning the society.
It is emphasized that to direct the development of the country into the area of modernization processes, it is necessary to take the target, sectoral, resource, organizational and time aspects as a basis; focusing on these aspects will provide the target orientation of the corresponding strategy.
Bezgin K. S. “Implementation of nonlinear paradigm of innovation management” – Transformations in socio economic sphere are beginning to sharpen the issue of empirical limitations of linear scheme of innovation development (represented by the triad “science – technology – production”, thus reducing the innovation activity of business entities and increasing the dissonance between enterprise and market with respect to innovations being created.
In view of this, it is necessary to search for epistemological foundations of innovation activity, which would correspond to increasing complexity and uncertainty of external environment to activate the innovation processes of Ukrainian enterprises and increase the congruence of innovations created.
The article shows that demarcation between linear and nonlinear paradigms of innovation management is the account of activities of all interested parties in the process of creation of innovation, which cannot be done using only the normative paradigm, constituted in provisions of classical innovation management. This has determined the need to expand traditional approach to innovation management by integrating the provisions of the descriptive paradigm.
An analysis of effective global innovation models allowed formulating the basic conceptual framework for innovation management in modern conditions: when identifying and introducing innovations, the high degree of cognitive heterogeneity of co creation subjects is
decisive factor, but not the profound professionalism and specialized knowledge of a limited group of experts. As synergistic preconditions ensuring the possibility of using the cognitive potential of innovative active subjects of the environment, the following factors are identified: (i) formation of a society of growing reflection, (ii) axiological fragmentation of society, (iii) growth of the number of independent expert groups, (iv) development of information and communication technologies, (v) epistemic merging of subjective and objective values, (vi) leveling of mechanisms of reduction of market complexity, etc.
Thus, increasing intellectualization of subjects of the environment in conjunction with existing experience of exploitation of object values, allows them to be identified as carriers of relevant socio technical knowledge, which in behavioral and operational aspects outweigh the cognitive capabilities of the subjects of science and engineering. It updates the need to involve environmental actors in joint innovation. Thus, the nonlinear paradigm of innovation management implies the existence of a large number of sources of innovation, which extends mechanism of structural coherence of market and enterprise, launching the process of symbiotic creativity through relevant to practical needs recombination and proliferation of the properties of innovations created.
Kuznyak B. Ya. “Transformation of Israel’s desert lands to high productive farms” – The article examines how Israel in a few decades had transformed desert lifeless lands with water shortages into high productive farms. It happened due to introduction of advanced technologies, achievements of genetics, biotechnology, the latest agrotechnical equipment, new plant varieties, automation and computerization of production.
The development of the agrarian sector is promoted by the state, which supports the optimal volumes of production, controls its quality, facilitates its supply and marketing, and provides financial assistance.
The persistent work of people, enthusiasm, cohesion, unity, mutual assistance have led to a significant increase in crop yield and productivity of livestock. The main organizational forms in agriculture are kibbutzs, moshavs and farms. These forms are constantly evolving, improving; there is a transition from the equalizing distribution of welfare benefits to distribution, depending on the labor contribution of each member.
Bohachov S. V., Mel’nykova M. V. “Management of urban agglomerations development
at the state and local levels” – The article is devoted to study of urban agglomerations development in Ukraine and management of this process at the state and local levels. Peculiarities of domestic urban agglomerations are revealed and possibilities of managing their development are determined. Peculiarities of domestic urban agglomerations are due to lack of their legal status and the need to combine efforts of territorial communities to solve issues of common interest. Possibility of solving these tasks is carried out by implementing the joint projects on the basis of decision making on development management. Expediency of transition to a more integrated form of association of efforts (a union of territorial communities within the urban agglomeration) is determined. General methodological provisions for managing the urban agglomerations development at the state and local levels have been formed. These provisions envisage: (i) selection of general and local priorities of urban agglomeration development, (ii) justification of the principles of making managerial decisions for achievement of the chosen priorities, (iii) development of projects and their financing at the expense of state and local budgets and attracted funds from private investors. Forms of participation of state authorities, local self government, population and business in the process of managing the urban agglomerations development are systematized. It has been proved that development and implementation of joint development projects require coordinated information and organizational support for managing the resources of territorial communities located on the territory of agglomeration. Solving the tasks for improving the legislation on cooperation of territorial communities and supporting the organizational and informational coherence of resource provision of territorial communities making up the urban agglomeration, will contribute to improving the management of their development at the state and local levels.