(англійською мовою) ..................................................................
MAZARAKI ANATOLII, KHARSUN LIUDMYLA “Development of Ukraine’s
logistic system: environmental challenges” – Transformational processes in modern supply chains are experiencing a significant impact of global environmental problems and are focused on increasing the level of efficiency of the supply chains’ operation and ensuring the competitiveness of goods passing through them towards the end consumer. On the one hand, the parameters of all parts of the logistics chains must be in line with the international environmental requirements; on the other hand, compliance with the principles of environmental friendliness serves as a prerequisite for meeting the needs of modern consumers with a high level of environmental awareness.
Logistics operations are a source of negative impacts on the natural environment. First of all, this concerns greenhouse gas emissions during transportation, waste products and packaging materials, noise and dust pollution, landscape changes and the use of natural resources. Therefore, environmental challenges stipulate the cooperation of all participants in supply chains, aimed at creating and implementing the effective environmental strategies and logistics concepts.
The need for ecologization of Ukraine’s transport and logistics system is dictated by the need to achieve a high level of its competitiveness as an element of the global supply chain network. And although the domestic logistics system by a number of indicators is characterized by a low level of environmental friendliness, there is a consoling positive tendency to realize the need for an environmental orientation of its development both among the state authorities, and the logistics operators themselves.
LAHUTIN VASYL “Institutions and economic mechanisms of stability and
development of society” – Institutions, organizations, economic mechanisms and instruments of social stability and development and their comprehensive interconnection and complementarity are considered. It is shown that in Ukraine’s economy such a system operates in the presence of a wide range of restrictions and endogenous and exogenous risks. The importance of economic stability as an important and necessary resource for social development is emphasized.
The institutions of stability include: the rule of law, security of property rights, legality and law and order, protection of consumer rights, support for freedom of contract, intellectual property rights and protection of labor rights. Institutions of development are, first of all, development of competition, stimulation of innovations and high technologies, encouragement of business to modernize and re engineer and security of private investment.
Analysis of institutions and analysis of mechanisms are combined. The central importance is attached to the content of the relevant economic mechanisms, the actors who bring these mechanisms into action and the motives (incentives) with which these actors are guided in their activities. The main features of the so called “mechanism of simulation (illusion) of social development”, typical for many developing countries, are revealed. The theoretical and methodological platform for ensuring a high level of social stability and development priority in Ukraine is substantiated.
MELNYK TETYANA “Foreign trade in services in the context of postindustrial development of Ukraine” – The tendencies of development of Ukraine’s foreign trade in services in the period of transition to postindustrial society are researched. The share of
exports of Ukraine’s services in 2017 amounted to 0.2% of the world exports and 0.1% of the world imports.
The foreign trade in technologically capacious services is analyzed by criterion of science intensity, according to which the Eurostat allocates 4 groups of high tech services: the highest level of science intensity, science intensive market services, science intensive financial services and other science intensive services. In foreign trade, the share of high tech services is 42%; the share of exports is 26%. Thus, Ukraine is a net exporter on the world market of high tech services and has over US$ 1.6 billion positive balance.
Educational services, which belong to the fourth group of science intensive services, are characterized by competitive advantages. Ukraine has a high coefficient of the population coverage with higher education. The final consumer spending of households for education in 2016 amounted to 1.3% of total expenditures in actual prices. Despite the fact that the price policy of Ukrainian higher education institutions is quite loyal, the number of students who go abroad to study increases every year. According to the CEDOS Center, the number of Ukrainian students studying in foreign universities amounted to 72 thousand in 2016 2017 academic year. According to the State Migration Service data, in 2016, 13,621 people left abroad and only 1,958 people returned. Moreover, highly qualified specialists are leaving, which negatively affects the quality of education. Ukrainian higher education institutions rank in the second half of the list of the international rankings of universities, with 5.6 out of 289.
A study of the level of total per capita expenditures for health care at purchasing power parity showed that in Ukraine this level is 1.8 times lower than the world one, and 2 3.1 times lower comparing with countries of the post Soviet space. The state and population health care expenditures increase (in 2017, they amounted to 0.02% of GDP), but are not accompanied by an increase in quality of services. No more than 6% of Ukrainians apply for personal health insurance programs. Therefore, it is necessary to develop regulatory and legal standards in the sphere of services, harmonized with international standards.
UMANTSIV IURII, MINIAILO OLEKSANDR “Economic policy of the state
under conditions of the global transformations” – The effective functioning of the national economy is determined by its ability to respond adequately and flexibly to the challenges that arise at every stage of its development. Under current conditions, the challenges caused by the following factors are especially acute: (i) dynamic advancement of technological development; (ii) strengthening competition in the world markets; (iii) the need to meet constantly growing social needs; (iv) search for new approaches to ensure the effective complementarity of the sustainable development components; (v) strengthening the requirements for balancing the national interests with global development; (vi) the need for a weighted balancing between the permanent emergence of new opportunities and threats in the context of the rapid spread of crisis phenomena.
Globalization transforms the forms and functions of the state. The lessons of global development of the last decades make it possible to identify two interrelated, but at the same time, different directions of transformation directly focusing on this issue. At the beginning of the XXI century the global economy has entered a new era of development, as the contradictions are rapidly intensifying between transnational corporations and the state sovereignty as a form of organization and functioning of society. The deep
seated consequence of globalization is the restriction of regulatory functions of the states. At the same time, the states can no longer adequately protect national economies from imbalances and asymmetric shocks. As a result of liberalization, national governments are losing the opportunity to effectively use a range of macroeconomic instruments.
The place and role of the state under conditions of modern transformations are conditioned primarily, by the fact that the state is considered as a subject ensuring the organization and functioning of all elements of the socio economic system. Speaking as a representative of society as a whole, the state itself establishes rules of functioning and market interaction of economic agents within the limits of certain economic order and supervises their observance. The basis for implementing a well balanced economic policy should be the scientific identification of strategic priorities of economic development and the definition of conceptual approaches and tools on this basis in order to harmonize the interests of society. BAY SERHIY, PRISYAJNYUK ANNA “IT clusters in Ukraine: economic potential” – As an organizational form of economic relations, clusters play a key role in development projects of the regions of Ukraine. Traditionally, industrial, agrarian, tourist, logistic and trade clusters predominate in the general structure of national clusters. However, such a structure is a real indicator of the technological diversity of Ukrainian economy at the level of restrained development. At the same time, high tech IT clusters of various organizational configurations become guarantors of timely innovative modernization and sustainable economic growth.
There are almost no programs for the development of information technology at the regional level in Ukraine. This significantly limits access of IT clusters to necessary resources, in particular, to financial, intellectual and social capital. This problem is especially acute in the framework of budgetary decentralization, when, taking into account the economic and social inconsistency of the regions to their own self reproduction, priority of the development of IT clusters and high tech industries in general is lost.
In the course of the study, the following results and conclusions were drawn: changes in financial and economic nature are substantially related to the macroeconomic level and should be defined in the national policy of clusterization development. It is necessary to: (i) actively implement budget decentralization, which will increase the financial participation of local governments in the development of infrastructure projects of IT clusters; (ii) weaken tax pressure on small and medium sized IT companies by providing a tax investment loan that involves delaying the payment of income tax for a specified period; (iii) develop a system of guarantees for IT companies involved in projects of public interest, in particular, in attracting external loans for the creation of new infrastructure objects; (iv) use the mechanism of “real custom duty” to recover the cost of investment. BLAKYTA HANNA, MELNYK VIKTORIIA, PURDENKO OLENA “Economic security of private enterprises” – The essential characteristics of economic security of private enterprises and its main components are determined. It is proposed to expand the main structural elements of the system of economic security of private enterprises. The main functional objectives of ensuring the economic security are characterized. The objectives include: (i) ensuring the high financial efficiency of work, financial
sustainability and independence of private enterprises on a sectoral scale; (ii) ensuring the technological independence and achieving the high competitiveness of the technical potential of small business enterprises; (iii) achievement of high management efficiency; (iv) achievement of a high level of personnel qualification and intellectual potential; (v) minimization of destructive impact of the results of industrial and economic activities on the environment state; (vi) high quality legal protection of all aspects of activity of private enterprises, etc.
The system of economic security of private enterprises is considered as an integral set of subjects and objects of security. The set is considered as an environment that ensures their interaction and purposeful activity in the internal and external environment in terms of counteracting threats, protection of economic interests and creation of safe conditions for functioning at the level of the planned indicators as a whole.
European experience and standards in the field of business security are revealed. It is emphasized that private enterprises in Ukraine are forced to operate in more severe and dangerous conditions than in developed countries of the world. Therefore, during the current period of reforms in the field of private entrepreneurship, it is recommended to introduce a regulatory framework that would fine tune the peculiarities of the functioning of private enterprises and create favorable conditions for an exit from economic crisis in order to form a safety margin in the event of unforeseen circumstances. After all, private enterprises are a significant component of the economic security of the state.
VOLOSOVYCH SVITLANA “Crowdlending within the Fintech system” – Integration of credit services with innovative technologies has created the basis for expanding the possibilities of attracting the additional financial resources by representatives of small and medium businesses and individuals. This determines the relevance of the selected topic.
The determinants of crowdlending development on the basis of research of its functioning in the system of financial technologies and analysis of international and domestic normative legal acts are substantiated.
Works of domestic and foreign scientists have become the theoretical and methodological basis of the article. The research was conducted using the methods of theoretical generalization, comparative analysis, analysis and synthesis, which allowed justifying directions of development of crowdlending in Ukraine.
Based on the analysis of scientific literature and international normative legal acts, it is proposed to single out operational, activity, subjective and contractual approaches to understanding the crowdlending. It is proposed to consider crowdlending as an activity of Internet platforms for meeting the needs of small and medium sized businesses and individuals for financial resources at the expense of creditors (investors) on the basis of repayment. The crowdlending platforms carry out organizational, analytical and monitoring functions. The stages of origin, development and application of innovative approaches in crowdlending are analyzed.
Consequently, crowdlending is a component of crowdfunding, the emergence and development of which was facilitated by Fintech. Nowadays, the specifics of crowdlending is (i) the international character of activity, (ii) focus on social, energy saving and innovative projects, (iii) protection of consumer rights, and (iv) credit risk management. It is necessary to introduce licensing of crowdlending activity in Ukraine.
Concerning P2P and P2B lending, it is necessary to establish requirements for disclosure of information by internet platforms regarding the possible risks of providing loans, as well as potential borrowers and the maximum amount of one time investment or that within a year. It is also important to make appropriate changes to the Tax Code of Ukraine regarding the taxation of income received through the provision of loans through the crowdlending platforms.
NOVIKOVA NATALIYA, NAUMENKO RAISA, ILINA ANASTASIYA “Markers
of professional competence of civil servants” – The authors determined indicators of professional competence of civil servants under conditions of reforming the system of public administration. Scientific approaches to interpretation of the concepts of “governance” and “public administration” are generalized and the relationship of these terms is analyzed. The main markers of professional competence of civil servants in the public sphere are being considered. The results of the study found that a significant proportion of civil servants for various reasons does not deal with the systematic development of their professional resource, which is based on creativity. At the same time, a high level of tension in professional activity, specific difficulties in the public service system cause problems in personal and professional development of civil servants, complicating the process of disclosing this potential and, accordingly, obtaining a higher level of competence for the pursuit of professional activity.
Among the effective areas of training of civil servants and raising their professional competence, the authors highlight (i) the development and justification of new criteria for evaluating the qualities, efficiency and effectiveness of management personnel in the field of civil service, (ii) stimulation of professional growth in the process of annual evaluation, and (iii) participation in open competitions. Accordingly, the development of further research is determined by the possibility of improving the theoretical and methodological foundations of studying the markers of professional competence of civil servants as applied aspects of the harmonization of the process of their professionalization taking into account the modern requirements of the new model of public administration.
DYEYEVA NATALIYA, KHMUROVA VIKTORIA “Public=private partnership:
stakeholders’ interests” – Public private partnership aimed at implementation of socially important projects with the involvement of private business resources is a promising and mutually beneficial way of cooperation between state and municipal governments with the private sector. To assess the opportunities and threats of ongoing projects, it is necessary to determine the interests of stakeholders, significance of their contribution, risks, and to develop a mechanism for coordinating the stakeholders’ interests.
The article clarifies the possibility of coordinating the interests of stakeholders on the basis of analysis of successful practices and directions for minimizing the risks of implementing a public private partnership, and identifies and classifies the key stakeholders in the partnership.
A dialectical method of analysis and synthesis, general methods of formal logic (analysis and synthesis, deduction and induction, analogy, comparison, etc.) were used in the course of the research. A systematic approach was used to generalize models.
Analysis of subjects and objects of public private partnership in various countries is carried out. The main directions of partnership are highlighted. Forms and models of