Ernest Jones was English physician, psychologist and psychoanalyst, who played a fundamental role in the development of psychoanalysis in England and the US being a student, biographer and one of the closest associates of Sigmund Freud for more than thirty years.
He got an university education in Cardiff and a college at the University of London, attended lectures at the universities of Munich, Paris and Vienna. After practical work at several hospitals in London, he got the position of professor of psychiatry at the University of Toronto and at the same time was invited to head the clinic of nervous illness in Ontario. But the main business of his life was the psychoanalytic movement, where he played one of the leading roles.
Ernest Jones (Alfred Ernest Jones), a Jew, was born on January 1, 1879 in Wales. His mother was a Baptist, but later converted into Anglican faith. Ernest was the first and most beloved son in the family. Father was not interested in religion, he was a prosperous businessman who was able to give education to his son. Ernst defined his father as a man of a very good spiritual values
At the age of twenty-one, Ernest received his medical degree and the first gold medal, having passed examinations at the clinical school of the University of London. While working as a birth-attendant in a hospital, he had to take birth at home in one of the poorest Jewish quarters in London.
Having received training as a neurologist, he had been practicing for three years at a children's hospital. Here he had to work for both the surgeon and the therapist. It is said that he was really demanding towards the junior medical personnel, who wondered why they should work tirelessly.
Trouble began at the end of the third year, when he discovered an abscess in the chest of a seriously ill girl. Invited for consultation, an authoritative physician did not agree with the diagnosis of Jones. But when, in the eyes of Jones, the abscess burst and the patient began to suffocate from the pus, he decided not to postpone the operation. The consultant who had seen that said that Jones would have to bear responsibility for his initiative.
Another story also stained his reputation. His bride needed an urgent surgery for appendicitis. He wanted to be present, but as the doctor on duty he could not leave the hospital. Having agreed with his colleague that he would leave his post for some time, he went to the bride's help. The next day the leadership was informed by junior medical personnel of his arbitrariness, and he was unceremoniously dismissed. Since then, everything has gone awry.
The whole next month he devoted to the preparation
for the final exams and successfully passed them, having received the second gold medal. Ernest hoped that he could persuade the leadership of the National Hospital to restore him in office. This confidence was based on the fact that there was no neurologist in the hospital who was equal to him in qualification. However, everything worked out not in his favor, and the consultant, whose error in diagnosis cost Jones dearly, put his hand to it.
Rumors spread in London quickly, and wherever he turned, including the university, everywhere he heard a polite refusal. There was nothing to do, and he had to set up a private office on Harley Street, along with a better-known doctor. Jones's father rented an office and paid for it. However, Ernest did not lose hope and within two years systematically bypassed the London hospitals, the training hospital in Charing Cross Street, the hospital for the neurotic in the West End, even little-known hospitals for children and for the nervous. Finally, lhe was on the roll and he was assigned to the Farington Dispensary, and later to the Naval Hospital, where he lectured on neurology. The need for money prompted him to become a reporter for the medical press. By posting reports on electives, he was able to improve his financial situation a bit.
One day, a friend invited him to visit the Fabian Community where lectures were given by Bernard Shaw, Herbert Wells and Sidney Webba. There, in the community he met a young Dutchman named Lowe and fell in love from head to heels. She was a reckless woman of a neurotic nature. The young spent several years together, living with him, then with her. Lowe called herself Mrs. Jones, despite the fact that formal marriage was not registere. Subsequently, Lowe became mentally ill and addicted to morphine. Ernest brought her to Vienna, where Freud with the help of psychoanalysis slowly reduced the consumption of morphine by half, and then to a quarter.
While studying aphasia, Jones had to conduct some tests at a school of mentally retarded adolescents. Two girls accused him of unworthy behavior, and Jones was arrested. He spent three days in the cell, then was released on bail. The investigation and the trial had asted a long time until the absurdity of the prosecution was ascertained. His colleagues collected donations to ease Ernest's burden of litigation costs.
In 1906, he became interested in convulsions without visible organic disturbances, as well as cases of anesthesia and paralysis. He began to practice psychotherapy before reading Freud's works. And again he got into trouble. In the West End hospital, a ten-year-old girl with hysterical paralysis of her left arm was getting on the edge. Dr. Saville, who treated the girl, published a book about neurasthenia; According to his diagnosis, the cause of her illness was "insufficient blood supply to part of the brain." Jones found out that the girl had come to school long before the beginning of the classes, to play with the boy a little older than her, who had tried to seduce her. The girl starte fighting with him with his left hand, which at first was numb, then paralyzed. Jones said that what happened to the girl is caused by her sexuality. England is a hypocritical country. A scandal broke out. The girl's parents, after learning about the incident, complained to the hospital committee, and they advised Jones immediately to resign for absurd suspicions.
At this time Professor of Psychiatry at the University of Toronto, Dr. Clarke traveled to Europe. Along the way, he studied the activities of psychiatric clinics and looked for a director for the institution he founded in Canada. The desperate Ernest Jones jumped at Dr. Clark's offer as an opportunity to start a new scientific life. He only asked the benefactor to give him six months to be trained in Switzerland in the well-known scientific tradition of the psychiatric hospital Burghelsli under the leadership of O. Bleuler and K. Jung. Here he was "infected" with psychoanalysis, the loyalty towards which he kept until the end of his days.
Jones did not know German well enough to understand the details of Freud's method. The impression that Professor Freud's works made on him prompted him to learn German and start studying "Interpretation of Dreams".
Ernest Jones spent two years in the American continent, doing research and returning to England in 1913 limited his activities to medical psychology. He played an important role in the
development of psychoanalysis in England and America. That this case required a certain courage, says the following fact. In Canada, the "Priutsky Bulletin" was closed on the pretext that Jones wrote an article for him about psychoanalysis. Then he published seven articles in Tsentralblatt and became a well-known authority in the field of sublimation, presenting his manuscripts to the new Freud journal "Zeitshrift" and to the ‘Journal of Anomalous Psychology’.
Jones was present at all psychoanalytical congresses, although travel required material costs, since congresses took place in Nuremberg, Weimar, Munich (September 1913) and other cities in Germany and Austria. Rogue Jones traveled around the world more than any member of the psychoanalytic community. He also worked with Sandor Ferenczi in Budapest.
Ernest Jones was married and had three children. Being well-known as a jouer, he loved expensive suits, he was a frequenter of the best restaurants, fashionable hotels and connoisseur of expensive wines. He was short, it seemed, his head, covered with light brown silky hair, was cut out for a more impressive and dense man, but still did not break proportionality. Like the majority of short people, he dressed elegantly and used sophisticate items, including ties and handkerchiefs. Jones's nature was open-minded. He was unruffled, in his own words, like Napoleon.
A distinctive feature of his appearance was pallor in connection with the transmitted blood disease in childhood. Dark curved eyebrows stood out sharply against the background of a pale forehead and dark large and penetrating eyes. On his strong-willed face it was an imposing Roman nose, his ears were pressed to his head, his mustaches were silky. When his prickly humor touched any member of the family, the mother exclaimed: "He is sharp as a needle."
As a member of the London Royal Society of Psychologists, Jones was an honorary adviser to the mentally ill hospital in Graylingwell, the honorary president of the International Psychoanalytic Association; American Psychoanalytic Association, British Psychoanalytic Society, founded October 30, 1913, and the Institute of Psychoanalysis. He was the founder and editor of the "International Journal of Psychoanalysis" and an honorary member of many psychological and psychiatric associations and societies
It was Jones who received permission to move Freud, his entire family, employees and doctors (and their families) who treated him from jaw cancer to England. And this saved the great scientist from imminent death at the hands of the fascists. Jones shrouded the rapids in London to get for British Freud visa and work permit. In that sad period, England reluctantly accepted refugees: they had to have the material support of British citizens, and work permits were almost eliminated. Jones turned directly to the Royal Society, which awarded Freud with an honorary title two years ago. The President of the Society, William Bragg, promised his support and gave Jones a letter of recommendation to the Minister of the Interior, Sir Samuel Hoare. The latter granted Jones the right to fill in documents with permission to enter Professor Freud, his family, a home doctor, all those who need him.
Ernest Jones published 12 books and 300 scientific papers, being the editor of the journal "Social Aspects of Psychoanalysis", and wrote a three-volume "Sigmund Freud: Life and Works". He was mobilized by the verily fate to write a biography of Freud. The fact is that Jones was uniquely prepared for such a difficult mission. On his way to psychoanalysis, he studied and practiced similar disciplines as Freud, particularly, philosophy, neurology, speech disorders, psychopathology, etc. This helped him to investigate his work during the pre-analytical period and its transition into the analytic period. Jones was connected with Freud for 31 years, possessing a huge store of knowledge. The role he played in the development of psychoanalysis on the American continent and in England was significant
From the famous "Committee" - the group that Freud formed from his most talented and closest colleagues to preserve the integrity of psychoanalysis after his death - Dr. Jones was one
of the two or three most prominent members of the community. Devotion to psychoanalysis in the most orthodox aspects allowed him to raise and defend before Freud his views on certain questions of theory. His own fame gave him the opportunity to judge objectively Freud’s activity and to express his admiration for him. He managed to combine the deepest respect for the personified Freud with a passionless scientific analysis of his complex life, the evolution of his thinking and creativity. Over time, other biographies of Freud were written, but they all lose in comparison with the authoritative and monumental work of Dr. Jones.
At the age of seventy-eight, Jones became seriously ill and had to overgo a complicated oncological operation. A few days after leaving the hospital, he was approached with a proposal to make a film in New York about the life and work of the founder of psychoanalysis. Despite his health, he flew across the ocean. On February 11, 1958, Ernest Jones died