The invention of the microscope is attributed traditionally to Dutch masters who made glasses - to the father and son George and Zacharias Jansen (1590). In fact, the microscope was invented in 1609-1619, but who was its first designer, is not exactly established. In 1610 or at the end of 1609, the Italian astronomer Galileo first constructed a microscope, working on improving the telescope. At the same time Domitian (1610) was offered the name - "microsconium".
In the future, for an astronomical pipe, the brilliant scientist and mechanic Huygens invented a complicated eyepiece in 1659; in 1672 the German physicist Johann Sturm (1635-1703) introduced into the microscope a two-lens objective instead of a single lens, and also invented a differential thermometer.
Microscopes of the XVII-XVIII centuries had obvious optical defects and gave unclear distorted images of microscopic objects. It was necessary to have a very sophisticated ability to observe the microscopic world in order to make numerous discoveries that glorified the name of the first microblogger, Leuvenook, for ages. The first report of Leuvenook describing the results of his strikingly accurate observations, made with self-made microscopes (more accurately, a loop with a mechanical device for focusing and with magnification up to 300 times), refers to 1673. The history of medicine should recognize Levenguk's undoubted merit in the fact that he liked to work with a microscope, otherwise histology, microbiology, biology might be a whole hundred years late.
Anthony van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723), first a doorman of the town hall in the Dutch city of Delft, then from 1648 a student studying business in Amsterdam. Beginning in 1660, and until the end of his life, Levenguk occupied a number of municipal posts. Microscopic research began in 1673. To this end, he created microscopes from lenses of his own grinding. Two years later, Leuvenook, examining under a microscope a drop of water taken from a puddle, discovered an unknown world of the smallest
living beings ("infusorians"), including bacteria. Observing the movement of blood in the capillaries, he described the red blood cells, the structure of smooth and striated muscles, bones, dentin teeth, the cellular structure of various plant organs. He studied the fine anatomical structure of the smallest insects, parthenogenetic reproduction of aphids; in 1677, together with his pupil I. Gam discovered spermatozoa of man and animals.
The German physicist Fraunhofer in 1811 produced an achromatic microscope with 4 lenses, but its shape was very inconvenient. For the first time, an achromatic microscope was constructed in satisfactory form by the Dutch optician van Dale in 1807. Sufficiently advanced microscopes began to be manufactured after the Parisian optician-mechanic Chevalier produced in 1824 a lens of four connected achromatic lenses.
And now let's imagine how clever it was necessary to have Dr. Malpighi, so that, using for studying the structure of individual organs and tissues of a person, strong loops ("microscopes"), increasing only up to 180 times, that is, half as much as that of Levenguk, and open the capillary blood supply, as well as describe the microscopic structure of a number of tissues and organs of plants, animals and humans? It is not surprising that the owner of such an insightful look, Malpighi became one of the founders of microscopic anatomy.
Marcello Malpighi, an Italian physician and biologist, was born on March 10, 1628 in Crevalkol near Bologna. His father is Mark Antony Malpighi, a
middle-class nobleman, his mother is Maria Cremonini. At the age of 12, his father gave him to school, where the boy was trained in Latin, rhetoric and other subjects. Discovering Marcello's outstanding abilities, his father sent him in 1645 in Bologna, the university. The first information Marcello received from Francesco Natali, professor of philosophy. For 4 years, the future scientist is poring over the philosophy of Aristotle.
Unexpected misfortune in 1649 interrupted the teaching: one by one the father of Malpigha, mother and grandmother (mother of the father) quickly died. As the eldest son of Marcello had to go to Crevalkol to organize the affairs of his numerous orphaned family (he had four brothers and three sisters). After some time, Marcello left the business to finish his uncle, and he returned to the university. The next subject was metaphysics, which he studied under the guidance of Jesuit father Gottard Belloni. On the advice of her first teacher, Natalie Marcello chose medicine for specialization, in which he was most attracted by anatomy. At the Faculty of Medicine, his main teachers were: by anatomy Bartolomeo Massari, and by clinical medicine - Andrea Mariani. After studying at the university, Marcello in 1653 defended his thesis for a doctorate in medicine. Three years later he was instructed to give lectures on medicine at the Bologna Higher School (Archiginnasio), but his enemies and envious persons, one of whom was professor of theoretical medicine of Montalbani, had previously poisoned his life with persecution, that he readily accepted the offer of the Duke of Tuscany Ferdinand II to take The newly established Department of Theoretical Medicine in Pisa. At the end of 1656, the extraordinary professor of Malpigha began to give lectures.
In the house of the professor of mathematics Alfonso Borelli, with whom the Malpighi approached, the anatomists made an autopsy of animals. The Grand Duke of Tuscany Ferdinand and Prince Leopold were present at the anatomical dissections and generally treated the events in the circle with lively interest. Later they invited scientists to the palace for demonstrations. Thanks to the interest of the ruling people in anatomy and physiology, in 1657 the Experimental Academy, founded by Prince Leopold, arose, and subsequently acquired great fame.
During this period Malpighi conducts research on the nature of the blood, writes works on urine, on the effects of laxatives, on digestion. However, his work is interrupted by the news of the rivalry that broke out between his brother Bartolomeo and the neighboring family of Sbaralya, whose possessions bordered on the lands of the Malpighi family in Crevalkol. This swara, which has become chronic and has taken a very sharp form, is destined to often invade the life of a scientist. Partly due to ill health, in part from the desire to be closer to his home and relatives, Malpighi receives permission from the Grand Duke to return to Bologna. Here he again holds a professorship at the university.
Oh, this Italian temperament. At the end of 1659 another trouble hit Malpighi. His brother Bartolomeo and a representative of the hostile family, Dr. Tomaso Sbaralya, met in the evening on a street in Bologna and started a fight, during which Bartolomeo fatally wounded Tomaso with a stiletto blow. Bartolomeo was sentenced to death, but after having spent a year and a half in prison until the lawsuit between the families ended, Malpighi was pardoned at the request of Malpigha. In the second year after his return to Bologna Malpighi was deeply saddened by the death of his second teacher, Andrea Mariani (1661). In the same year, in the University of Messina, the Department of Medicine was released (after the death of Professor Pietro Costelli), and the Messianic Senate invited Malpighi to this department. After receiving a four-year vacation from the leadership of the University of Bologna, he left in October 1662 in Messina. Here, in Messina, Malpighi was primarily concerned with the anatomy of plants.
In 1684, Malpighi acquired a villa in Corticelli near Bologna. In the same year, he again suffered the misfortune: in his house in Bologna there was a fire
that destroyed a significant part of his property, microscopes and a large number of manuscripts containing valuable scientific materials. In 1689, another misfortune struck him. Proportional to the fame of Malpighi grew and dislike Montalbani. The ill-wishers of Malpighi, not being able to damage his scientific reputation, conceived the idea of causing him material damage. One of the members of the family Sbaralya and a certain Mini, who repeatedly attacked Malpighi in polemical articles, organized a gang of young people who attacked the villa in Corticelli. As a result of the attack, the situation inside the house was destroyed, scientific instruments and materials burned.
This incident completely exhausted the patience of the 61-year-old Malpighi. He refused to give lectures and retired to his home. In 1691, Malpighi accepted the invitation of the pope and went to Rome, where he was appointed personal physician Innocent XII. In Rome, he was severely ill, gout was evident. July 25, 1694 he suffered an apoplectic stroke, after which he recovered and began to work, preparing his scientific works for publication. Soon his wife died. The death of a loved one caused him deep suffering, he was inconsolable. November 29, 1694, followed by a second apoplectic attack, which a day later took the life of Malpigha. During his autopsy, a greatly enlarged heart and traces of hemorrhage into the cerebral ventricles were found. The body according to the will was betrayed to the earth in Bologna. In honor of Malpigha in Bologna, a medal was smashed, a statue was erected at the university and a statue of his enemy, Dr. Sbaralie, was placed next to him, as if in mockery.
Malpighi's activity was versatile: he was a pioneer in the field of histology, embryology, anatomy, botany, even mineralogy (he wrote an article on the origin of metals). Strictly speaking, it can rather be called a forerunner than the founder of these scientific disciplines. In addition, he was also a medical scientist and practical doctor, and a clinician who was interested in illnesses not only from the point of view of healing, but also as a subject of study: he did not miss the opportunity to be present at autopsies of persons who died from certain diseases, and get acquainted with the diseases revealed in their bodies.
Dr. Malpighi's scientific achievements are enormous. He was the first scientist who was engaged in systematic and purposeful microscopic research. This allowed him to make a number of important discoveries. So, in 1660 he described the alveolar structure of the lungs (in the frog) and the blood corpuscles (in the hedgehog).
While engaged in botany, Malpighi described air tubes (1662) and vessels (1671) in plants, published the major work "Anatomy of Plants" (two volumes, 1675-1679). The family of dicotyledonous free-flecking plants (Malpigiaceae) is named after Malpighi.
The most important merit of Malpighi, of course, is the discovery of capillary blood circulation (the frog bladder was the object of the study), supplementing the theory of the blood circulation of Harvey. Malpighi used a microscope, so he discovered what Garvey could not see. Four years after the death of Harvey, that is, in 1661, Malpighi published the results of observations on the structure of the lung, and for the first time he described the capillary blood vessels that connect the arteries to the veins. Thus, the last secret of the circulatory system was revealed.
Marcello Malpighi described in detail the structure of the lung, indicating that it consists of an innumerable number of small vesicles entangled in a network of capillary blood vessels. However, the scientist could not determine what is the role of lungs in the body of an animal and a human. Nevertheless, he categorically refuted Galen's theory of cooling the blood; but his opinion that the blood in the lungs is mixed, was also wrong.
The discovery of capillary blood vessels and a description of the structure of the lungs is not the only merit of Malpighi. He gave a detailed description of the structure of the kidneys, in which he discovered glomeruli, later called Malpighian
bodies. Malpighian bodies - 1) in the kidneys of man and vertebrates (with the exception of some fish), the glomeruli of arterial capillaries, in which the liquid from the blood is filtered into the urinary tubules; 2) in the reticular tissue of the spleen, lymphoid nodules, in which lymphocytes are formed.
In addition, Malpighi described the structure of the skin, the epidermal layer of the skin and the microscopic structure of a number of tissues and organs of plants, animals and man: lymphatic spleen bodies, pyramids and glomeruli in the kidney, excretory organs of insects. All these formations are named after him: Malpighian vessels, excretory organs in many arachnids, millipedes and insects. Long tubular outgrowths of the intestine on the border of the middle and hindquarters excrete uric acid (in centipedes and insects) and mainly guanine (in arachnids). In aquatic insects participate in osmoregulation.
In conclusion, we correct the mistake of the historians of medicine and briefly mention the achievements of the unjustly forgotten compatriot of Malpighi Francesco Stelluti (Stelluti, 1577-1651), an Italian scientist, doctor and anatomist, and since 1603 a member of the Academy in Rome. He was one of the first to apply the Galileo microscope with a concave eyepiece to study the anatomy of animals, in particular insects; for the first time in 1625 he made a detailed description of the structure of the bee, providing it with carefully executed drawings.