Yuri Drohobych

Zdorovye - - NEWS -

The first of the domestic doctors of medicine, Yuri Drohobych, was born in Drohobych in the family of the artisan Mikhail Kotermak in 1450.

Yuri's mother died when he was still a boy. He, along with his older sister, was raised by a father who wanted the boy to become a learned person, so he sent him to study for the deacon. Yuri showed himself to be the best student among those who studied with a friend. One day the teacher told the children about the darkness of the sun, this story struck Yuri, and he decided to study hard to become a star-starter. That new misfortune fell to the young man - his father died. Drohobych power men showed concern for Yuri and arranged him as a writer in Lviv. He simultaneously worked and studied he improved his knowledge of the Latin language, studied other languages, communicated daily with foreign merchants and traveling with Lviv merchants to other countries. In Yuriy Kotermak graduated from the Cathedral School in Lviv, where he studied many other sciences.

During these times the land of subcarpathian Drohobych, Galician Rus and Lviv was under the control of Poland. In an effort to acquire new knowledge, in 1469 Yuri traveled to Krakow University. For a year, in 1470, he received a bachelor's degree. Yuri attends lectures on astronomy, philosophy, medicine and mathematics. After completing the course of studies at the university, the young man successfully passed the examinations and in 1473 he was awarded the title of Master, which gave him the right to independently read lectures at the university.

To continue studying, the young master of Krakow University goes on foot to the Italian city of Bologna, giving a promise at the faculty after graduation to return to Krakow. He traveled to the oldest European institution of higher education - the famous Bologna University of Fine Arts and Medicine. In the Renaissance, it was one of the centers of scientific thought. Yuri attracted medicine, but, according to the university statute, he had to first master mathematics,

astronomy, philosophy, to improve knowledge of Latin and Greek, poetry and rhetoric. Among the renowned professors, whose lectures were listened to by Yuri, was Gabriel Zerbi, recognized as one of the pioneers of the hero-comedy - the hygiene of the senile age. This professor also taught the logic and theoretical medicine, speaking modern language, the basis of pathology and anatomy.

Yuriy Kotermak (Yuriy from Drohobych - the so called our fellow countryman in Bologna) from 1478 teaches astrology at Bologna University. In addition, he taught medicine at holidays at the philosophical and medical faculties.

In those days, every doctor had to be understood in astrology so that with the location of celestial forces it would be possible to decide when it would be better to carry out a surgical operation when it comes to blood, to know what period of time the medicine works most effectively. Yuri Kotermak wrote in late 1477 - early 1478 his first forecast of astronomical phenomena in 1478. Kotermak considered the influence of planets on earth events not as fatal, but as favorable or unfavorable. He cites the words of Petrarch: "The forgiven disaster is less painful to us ..." The manuscript (now stored at the Munich State Library) was noticed by European scholars, as well as his other works. In 1478 Ko­тер­мак received a Ph.D. degree (according to other data - in 1476 [4, pp. 153]). He continues to master medicine. In France, Germany, Hungary, rewritten his work, he becomes known in Europe as an astronomer, philosopher, physician and writer.

Despite his celebrity, the scientist is in distress. He wrote to his fellow countryman in a letter that was preserved: "Because of the fact that man knows all the sciences, when it is poor and destitute ...".

In 1481 (according to other data - 1480 [1, p.164]) in Bologna, according to the results of the vote, the rector of the university was elected Yuri from Drohobych. In

the autumn of 1481 Yuriy Kotermak received a doctor's degree (according to other sources - in 1476 [4, pp. 153] or in 1482 [1, pp. 164]). There is some evidence that his doctoral dissertation on medicine was called "Carmine de Urinarium Judithium", that is, "Urgency about cleansing urine." It was a work on the principles of timely treatment.

Yuriy Kotermak served as rector of the Bologna University until 1482, and in 1483 moved to Ferrer in northern Italy. This city in those ancient times was a great cultural center.

The famous Judithium prenostikon (in its entirety, reads as follows: "Forecast considerations for the current 1483 Master of Georgiy Drohobych from Russia, Doctor of Philosophy and Medicine (Rome, February 1483, February 7)) was the first printed Latin edition published by him. Kotermak not only gave precise calculations of the terms of the following heavenly events that had to be observed in different geographic regions, but also attempted to determine the geographical coordinates, and for the first time - the cities of Galician Rus, Podillya, Voloshchyna. It is striking that Kotermak's attempts to anticipate epidemics in Italy, France, the Polish Kingdom and Silesia, other countries, "if there is no proper provision of cities", "if there is no due caution". According to Kotermak, the traffic jams that arose as a result of the influx of tourists in Rome could be reduced due to the rational management of the city and the vigilance of the population.

This unique work exists today only in two or three copies, and, unfortunately, outside of Ukraine. Kotermak dreams of returning to his native land, where he lives in the years 1486-1487. But upon arrival, his native land met him with devastating raids of the Tatars, information about another ruin of Kiev, about the ruined and ruined temples. Unfortunately, the scientist could not find a place in the Motherland, where he could apply his knowledge and talent. He is heading to Bratislava. For two years he will be vice chancellor and professor of the Istropolitan Academy.

The scientist decides to return to Krakow, where he could take care of the Ukrainian youth who decided to acquire knowledge at Krakow University. From 1488 Koitermak teaches medicine at this university. He taught students not only in medicine, but also in medical astrology, was also a great connoisseur of Eastern philosophy and poetry.

The idea of the need for caution and vigilance during the evils was developed in the following treatise by Kotermak about the solar and lunar eclipse, which he wrote in 1490 already in Krakow (a copy of the manuscript is in the Paris National Library). He also writes about probable illnesses of people based on the fact that people of "different temperament and various complexes" (constitutions of the organism) react differently to the same influences.

Krakow was spreading good fame about the doctor-practitioner of Yuri Drohobych. He was also called George from Russia and Yuri from Lviv. Besides that Yuri was practicing medicine, he also made medicines himself. Kotermak was awarded the title of "royal physician Georgius from Lviv". Interestingly, Nikolai Copernicus listened to his lectures at the university in the future.

Yuriy Kotermak took an active part in the cultural movement of those times. In the early 90's he was one of those who were preparing for the publication of Old Slavonic Cyrillic books that were needed in Ukraine. These are "Octopus", "The Hourly", "The Trio of Pine" and "Trio of Colors".

For the health of the scientist, they gave signs of misery and malnutrition for the student's years, since 1494 the health of the scientist has shaken. "George Drohobych died here on the third day of the week (Tuesday) about 23 o'clock" - such a record from February 4, 1494, we find in one of the books of the Krakow Library.

The life and work of Yuriy Kotermak deserves deep respect. In 1999, in Drohobych, a monument to a well-known fellow countryman was installed.

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