On Their Way to the Bake-Off
A snapshot of this year’s 10 vfx contenders.
Last month, the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences selected 10 titles to move forward in the visual effects category for the 90th Academy Awards. These films will participate in the annual “bake-off” in early January, during which the vfx branch will vote to determine the nominees. It’s interesting to see less splashy offerings such as Dunkirk and Okja being recognized instead of more predictable fare such as Beauty and the Beast, Pirates of the Caribbean, Wonder Woman and Thor Ragnarok. Nominations for the 90th Oscars will be announced on Jan. 23. The ceremony will be held on March 4 at the Dolby Theatre in Hollywood, and will be televised live on ABC. Here’s a quick breakdown of the big Bake-Off 10 listed in alphabetical order: Studio: Fox VFX Houses: MPC, Luma Pictures, Animal Logic, Framestore, Rising Sun, Atomic Fiction, Peerless Camera Co. VFX Supervisors: Neil Corbould, Vincent Cirelli, Ferran Domenech, Marcus Dryden, Charley Henley, Dan Oliver Highlights: Ridley Scott took the franchise back to the grittier, grungier nature of the original Alien, while continuing with the design aesthetics carried through Prometheus. Conor O’Sullivan’s sublime creature designs included a new monster called the Neomorph, which is seen both as a baby and a full-grown alien. Other highlights included some majestic environmental work courtesy of MPC and two landing ships with giant sails. Of course, you got to celebrate the film’s chestburster and facehugger moments, which were much more advanced models of the monsters we first met in 1979. Studio: Warner Bros. VFX Houses: Double Negative, MPC, Framestore, Atomic Fiction, Territory Studio, BUF, Rodeo FX, UPP, Weta Workshop VFX Supervisors: Richard Clegg, Paul Lambert, Viktor Muller, John Nelson, Highlights: Following up the original sci-fi classic’s trail-blazing effects from 1982 was no easy task, but John Nelson and his team did a terrific job of recreating the brave, new world of Ryan Gosling’s officer character, who is in charge of retiring Replicants. Among the dystopian highlights of the movie were the Brutalist architecture of the future cities, the new holographic characters, and an eye-popping, digital reproduction of Rachael, Sean Young’s original robotic character who is forever young, thanks to the seamless vfx work. As Nelson points out, “Instead of throwing a billion things at the viewer, why don’t we throw a hundred things, but have them be really, really good?” Studio: Warner Bros. VFX House: Double Negative VFX Supervisors: Andrew Jackson, Andrew Lockley, Tim McGovern, Paul Corbould Highlights: Christopher Nolan’s epic WWII movie received high marks for its “you’re-there” realism, and relied mostly on optical effects to recount the evacuation of the 330,000 Allied soldiers from the beaches of Northern France. Using IMAX and 70mm 5-perf film stock, the film utilized previs for the aerial dogfights. As supervisor Andrew Jackson explained, “We might have one or two real planes in the shot already, do a camera track of the real plane, and animate CG planes into that scene until we were happy with the action.” The filmmakers also used CG for crowd extensions, environmental cleanup for the water (the ocean-based shots were filmed in Holland in the Zuiderzee inland sea), adding horizon lines and smoke effects, and making adjustments to sand dunes. Studio: Disney VFX Houses: Framestore, Weta Digital, Animal Logic, Deluxe Method Studios, Scanline VFX, Trixter, Lola VFX, Cantina Creative, Luma Pictures, The Third Floor VFX Supervisors: Christopher Townsend, Jelmer Boskma, Paul Butterworth, Alessandro Cioffi, Vincent Cirelli, Trent Claus, Adrian Corsei, Matthew Crnich, Jonathan Fawkner, Venti Hristova, Cornelius Porzig Highlights: How can we forget the adorable Baby Groot as we look back at the visual highlights of 2017? Of course, there was a lot more to love in this perfect summer escapist thrill ride: Creature work, dazzling spaceships, “the best opening sequence in the world” (as dictated in the script), an eight-tentacled, semi-translucent creature known as the Abilisk, the golden Sovereign world and the ruthless priestess Ayesha were all part of the package. “The title sequence was an enormous undertaking: one of the most complex I’ve ever experienced in my career,” says Framestore animation supe Arslan Elver. “The entire set was reflective and the camera doesn’t cut, meaning the team was faced with 800 frame-long effects and the need to run simulations that were thousands of frames long!”
Studio: Warner Bros. VFX Houses: ILM, Hybride Technologies, Rodeo FX VFX Supervisor: Jeff White Highlights: For this state-of-the-art incarnation of the cinematic beast, the team at ILM built on its recent hairy mammal expertise (Warcraft, The Revenant) and delivered even more emotional facial work for Kong. According to vfx supervisor Jeff White, one of the biggest challenges was the scale: It takes much more hair to cover a character that large: “We estimated about 19 million hairs covered Kong’s body,” he says. “Also, we couldn’t get away with the hair being long and simple because then we’d lose some of the scale cues … We developed new technology that allowed us to put leaves and sticks and caked-on mud in his hair and we had a swarm of flies around him.” The film also features lots of water simulation and a variety of magnificent digital creatures that inhabit the island, along with Kong. Studio: Netflix VFX Houses: Creative Party VFX Supervisor: Erik-Jan De Boer, Jun Hyoung Kim, Jeon Hyoung Lee Highlights: The team at Method Studios created the life-like giant pig star of the movie, which is roughly 12 feet long, eight feet tall and weighs about 12,000 lbs. Oscar-winner Erik-Jan de Boer (Life of Pi) refined the look of the creature and developed a highly detailed asset that would seamlessly integrate with practical footage. “We aimed to make Okja a realistic presence on set and focused on making the young actress playing Mija comfortable even though her primary costar is an inanimate foam shape,” says de Boer. “We had intricate shots with upwards of five people touching Okja at once, shots where Okja is in frame for a full minute, and many shots with Mija hugging Okja, allowing time to scrutinize every contact point and shadow. This required lots of roto, paint, rotomation and animation with an incredibly high fidelity.” Studio: Fox Searchlight VFX Houses: Mr. X VFX Supervisor: Dennis Berardi Highlights: Berardi and his team worked on over 60 minutes of the film (either digital enhancement or full digital creation). “I’m most proud of the opening sequence, where we start with an underwater seabed, which was entirely digitally created by Mr. X and move up into a set piece (Eliza’s apartment), which we shot dry, using smoke and projectors. We floated furniture, some of it was practically hung on monofilament, and some were digitally animated.” The vfx artists also did a terrific job mixing the footage of actor Doug Jones in creature costume with keyframe animation to deliver the bioluminescent glow. The creative team looked to nature and sea creatures that generate their own light, like cuttlefish, to come up with the memorable glow of the creature from the Amazon. Studio: Disney VFX Houses: ILM, Hybride, Important Looking Pirates, Jellyfish, One of Us, Rodeo FX, Blind Ltd. VFX Supervisors: Richard Bain, Ben Morris, Michael Mulholland, Chris Corbould Highlights: To put things into perspective, all three movies in the original Star Wars trilogy won Oscars for their vfx achievements. The first two of the prequels were also nominated ( Revenge of the Sith was ignored). The Force Awakens and Rogue One also received Oscar noms, so the odds are pretty strong for The Last Jedi as well. There are plenty of breath-taking visuals to celebrate in Rian Johnson’s deeply satisfying opus, who takes the franchise to unexpected heights, from clearly choreographed action sequences and lightsaber fights to the puffin-inspired Porgs, the remarkable sea birds that kept Luke company on the planet Ahch-To. Studio: STX Entertainment VFX Houses: Weta Digital, ILM, Rodeo FX VFX Supervisor: Scott Stokdyk Highlights: Stokdyk, who won the vfx Oscar for his work on Spider-Man 2 12 year ago, has the challenging task of working with a huge amount of concept work from artists all over the world. Set in the 28th century, Luc Besson’s movie is based on a popular French comic-book series and features a host of amazing alien backdrops and creatures. Human actors interacted with alien characters using mo-cap suits, then a pass with only human characters was record, and all had to be put together smoothly in post. Another highlight was a shapeshifting alien named Bubble, played by Rihanna. “A lot of it was a leap of faith, knowing that Weta could replace an arm, leg or even a face if needed,” says Stokdyk. “The technology gives us freedom to make something interesting.” Studio: Fox VFX House: Weta Digital VFX Supervisors: Joe Letteri, Dan Lemmon, Erik Winquist, Dan Cervin Highlights: This year’s acclaimed chapter of the sci-fi epic found Andy Serkis’ Caesar out on a revenge mission that takes him through extreme snow and other conditions that would have been impossible to visualize a few years ago. As Joe Letteri told Deadline, “War takes us on this epic journey into really harsh conditions, where we were capturing in the snow, and in the rain, and really difficult location work … But it showed that you can take this technology and evolve it, and directors and actors can use it to create a scene anywhere.” The characters’ nuanced performances, the realistic interaction of digital fur with snow, a beautiful sequence featuring Apes riding horses, and some stunning close-up work (made possible by Weta’s Manuka renderer) are among the film’s many vfx highlights. Image credits:
AIn the past, animated features have often been shut out when it comes to below-the-line awards, but the tide may be turning. By Karen Idelson
nimated features have never just been for kids. They bring millions of people to movie theaters worldwide each year. They’re some of the most consistent performers at the box office, home entertainment kiosks, packaged media sales and in downloads. Many of the world’s most talented and lauded filmmakers tell their stories through animation. However — outside of the animated feature, short film and song categories at the Academy Awards — you’d struggle to remember the last time someone was nominated outside of those categories for the work they’d done on an animated film.
Even though they’re not racking up Academy and other awards season nods, the costume designers, sound designers, cinematographers and many other members of the crew who work in animation face the same challenges, solve the same problems and essentially do the same kind of work as they undertake a live-action project.
Deborah Cook, a highly regarded costume designer and puppet modeler, made all of the costumes for LAIKA’s 2014 stop-motion film The Boxtrolls by hand because there isn’t a costume rental house for miniature costumes and there’s really no place to buy them, either. So, she must design costumes, select fabrics and often hand dye them to create the right colors. Cook is on the forefront of costume work in animation. Last year, she became the first designer to receive a nomination from the Costume Designers Guild for her work on Kubo and the Two Strings.
“I see our talented team of filmmakers as equal to live-action filmmakers. We have the same expertise and, additionally, have a specialist knowledge of stop-frame filmmaking and a skill set for smaller-scaled details,” says Cook. “I feel proud that my nomination challenged the wider movie industry to see us as equals and competitors in any comparable category in the industry.”
Costume designers for animation also sometimes design costumes that aren’t actually built in the traditional way (they’re created using software and then wrapped around a character). Other times, a costume that has already been created by hand is then scanned and the dimensions are taken into the computer for an animated character. Jacqueline Durran’s work for the Beast’s wardrobe in this year’s live-action Beauty and Beast went through just that adaptation.
These kinds of technological changes have made costume design for animation difficult to describe and, as a result, difficult to nominate or award, according to Salvador Perez, president of the Costume Designers Guild.
“In the past, costume designers who worked in animation were sometimes called ‘character designers,’ so it wasn’t something that was necessarily recognized,” says Perez. “You have to keep up with the technology and once the amazing work of Deborah Cook was submitted as costume design, it was noticed, because how could you not see how much work she put into Kubo?”
Perez says the Costume Designers Guild is also working on outreach programs that educate its members in the technological changes coming to their industry as costume design is increasingly done for both live actors and animated characters, whether they’re in “live-ac-
tion” films or purely animated features.
The Academy itself once included animators under the Short Films branch of AMPAS. It wasn’t until 1995 that it became the Short Films and Animation Branch in order to better suit animators who often worked exclusively in feature animation.
In the past, hybrid films like Who Framed Roger Rabbit and Mary Poppins have also received nods and awards. The former won for best visual effects, best film editing and best sound effects editing. In 1964, Mary Poppins won for best actress, best visual effects, best film editing, best original song and best score.
Perhaps the Academy Awards category that’s seen the greatest influx of animated nominees is sound editing, which involves creating and designing the sounds we hear in films. In the last 20 years, Monsters, Inc., Finding Nemo, The Polar Express,
percentage of films that get nominated for sound Oscars are films with lots of battle scenes. We think loud sound, lots of sounds, that must be good sound. And, to be honest, I think one of the reasons The Incredibles won an Oscar is that it’s an action film.”
Thom also points out that a large number of the sound pros in the Sound Branch of the Academy — which generates the nominations for the sound categories — work on physical movie sets instead of animation. So, they may not have as strong a connection to sound work done for animated features.
Thom, Cook and Perez would all like to see
Rank, Title (Studio) 1. Despicable Me 3 (Universal) 2. Coco (Disney-Pixar) 3. The LEGO Batman Movie (Warner Bros.) 4. The Boss Baby (DreamWorks) 5. Cars 3 (Disney-Pixar) 6. The Emoji Movie (Sony) 7. Captain Underpants (DreamWorks) 8. The LEGO Ninjago Movie (Warner Bros.) 9. Ferdinand (Fox/ Blue Sky) 10. Smurfs: The Lost Village (Sony) Rank, Title (Studio) 1. Star Wars: The Last Jedi (Disney) 2. Beauty and the Beast (Disney) 3. Wonder Woman (Warner Bros.) 4. Guardians of the Galaxy 2 (Disney) 5. Spider-Man: Homecoming (Sony) 6. It (Warner Bros.) 7. Thor: Ragnarok (Disney) 8. Logan (Fox) 9. Justice League (Warner Bros.) 10. The Fate of the Furious (Universal)
OThe Annie Awards will celebrate another year of brilliant achievements in animation and visual effects by indie artists and studio teams alike.
ne of the best things about working in the animation and vfx industry is attending the International Animated Film Association’s (ASIFA-Hollywood) Annie Awards every year. This year’s event, which takes place on Saturday, Feb. 3 at UCLA’s Royce Hall, promises to be another unforgettable celebration of the art and amazing people who work in the industry. We caught up with ASIFA-Hollywood President Jerry Beck to get his take on the 45th edition of the awards, which features 36 categories as well as special juried awards.
“We are still in the planning stages, but we have a new stage set and we’ll unveil a new logo,” says the distinguished animation historian and author. “What’s different and exciting is — as always — the range and scope of the nominees. The energy of the event comes from our members and the quality of the features and TV represented. The range of techniques being honored include retro-style video games ( Cuphead is getting a special award) to oil painting animation, from major studio CGI to anime, and some incredible virtual reality innovations.”
Beck says audiences should expect a few jaw-dropping surprises, but he promises that nobody will read the wrong winner for Best Picture! He adds, “A highlight for me — and I’m so proud of our nominee judging committees, all made up of industry peers in each category — is the quality of the nominated films and filmmakers. The Annie Awards is truly a celebration of all the incredible talent in the field today. It’s a huge turn-around from the way the business was when I moved to Los Angeles in 1986, when animation was defined by low-budget Saturday morning cartoons, a few feature films, commercials and scattered independent shorts. Today, we have over 20 features per year, loads of gaming, opportunities in special effects, programming on cable TV, streaming channels, on and on. And, almost every college has a serious animation program. The Annies truly reflect the best of our community over the last year. You want to see the future of animation? Keep your eyes on our nominees and winners.”
Overall, Beck believes the animation and vfx industry couldn’t be healthier.
“We are still a stepchild to the movie industry, but those of us in the field, those of us who make films, those of us who devote ourselves to animation know it is the greatest expression of art and storytelling in cinema,” he stresses. “There are more voices making new features, shorts and series. More voices, more choices, more ideas, more inclusion. It’s not just Hollywood — it is truly an international medium without boundaries.”
This feeling of bright optimism also includes what is in store for us in 2018. “I’ve only seen snippets of some of the upcoming features slated for next year and — to be honest — it looks like we will top ourselves again in 2018. The whole field is moving forward and I’m happy to say: that’s how it should be!” To learn more about this special celebration and to nab your tickets before they’re gone, visit www.annieawards.org.
Here are some of the 45th Annie Awards nominees in the major categories: Best Animated Feature Captain Underpants (DreamWorks) Cars 3 (Pixar) Coco (Pixar) Despicable Me 3 (Illumination) The Boss Baby (DreamWorks) Best Animated Feature (Independent) In This Corner of the World (Taro Maki, GENCO, Masao Maruyama, Mappa Co.) Loving Vincent (BreakThru Films) Napping Princess (Nippon TV) The Big Bad Fox & Other Tales (Folivari, Panique!, Studiocanal) The Breadwinner (Cartoon Saloon, Aircraft Pictures, Melusine Prod.) Best Animated Special Production Imaginary Friend Society “Feeling Sad” (Hornet) Olaf’s Frozen Adventure (Walt Disney Animation Studios) Pig: The Dam Keeper Poems (Tonko House, Inc.) Revolting Rhymes (Magic Light Pictures) Tangled: Before Ever After (Walt Disney Television Animation) Best Animated Short Subject Dear Basketball (Glen Keane Prod., Kobe Studios, Believe Ent. Group) Hedgehog’s Home (National Film Board of Canada, Bonobostudio) Negative Space (IKKI Films, Manuel Cam Studio) Scavengers (Titmouse, Inc., Adult Swim) Son of Jaguar (Google Spotlight Stories, Reel FX) Best Animated TV/Broadcast: Preschool Mickey and the Roadster Racers “Goofy Gas!” (Disney TV Animation) Octonauts “Operation Deep Freeze” (Vampire Squid, Silvergate Media, Brown Bag Films) Peg + Cat “The Mariachi Problem” (The Fred Rogers Co., 100 Chickens Prod.) The Stinky & Dirty Show (Amazon Studios) Through the Woods “A Snowy Morning” (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, The Fred Rogers Co., PIP Animation Services) Best Animated TV/Broadcast: Children Buddy Thunderstruck “To Protect and Swerve / Robo Truck of the Future” (Stoopid Buddy Stoodios, American Greetings for Netflix) Lost in Oz “The Pearl of Pingaree” (Amazon Studios) Niko and the Sword of Light “From the Cliffs of Catastrophe to the Pools of Destiny” (Amazon Studios) Tangled: The Series “Queen for a Day” (Disney TV Animation) We Bare Bears “Panda’s Art” (Cartoon Network) Best General Audience Animated TV/Broadcast Big Mouth “Am I Gay?” (Netflix) BoJack Horseman “Stupid Piece of Sh*t” (Tornante Prod. for Netflix) Rick and Morty “Pickle Rick” (Williams Street Prod.) Robot Chicken “Freshly Baked: The Robot Chicken Santa Claus Pot Cookie Freakout Special: Special Edition” (Stoopid Buddy Stoodios) Samurai Jack “Episode XCIII” (Adult Swim) Best Student Film Cradle (Devon Manney) Elsewhere (Junyi Xiao) Good Night, Everybuds! Once a Hero (Xia Li) Poles Apart (Paloma Baeza) Special Juried Honors Winsor McCay Awards for career contributions to the art of animation: British character animator James Baxter; SpongeBob SquarePants creator Stephen Hillenburg; Oscar-winning Canadian directors Wendy Tilby & Amanda Forbis ( When the Day Breaks, Wild Life) The Ub Iwerks Award for technical advancement: TVPaint, for its versatile software for 2D animation The Special Achievement Award: Studio MDHR Entertainment for its 1930s-inspired wonder-game Cuphead. The June Foray Award: Animation historian Didier Ghez. The Certificate of Merit will be awarded to David Nimitz, devoted friend and caretaker of veteran voice actress, and ASIFA-Hollywood & Annie Awards pioneer, the late June Foray.
TV is in need of reinventing itself as streaming and on demand services are proliferating, eSports is on the rise, and gaming is becoming increasingly mainstream. At The Future Group, we want to merge real and virtual worlds, and create shows where TV contestants and viewers at home are put into the same virtual universe, competing in the same challenges and winning the same prizes.
To make this happen we use our own proprietary technology Frontier™; a heavily-enhanced version of Epic’s Unreal game engine and Ross Video hardware. Frontier lets us merge the physical studio environment with virtual worlds, allowing TV contestants in the studio to compete in the same virtual worlds as viewers at home, who can access the same games through their mobile devices. We call this Interactive Mixed Reality™.
Lost in Time is the world’s first Interactive Mixed Reality game show, made in collaboration with FremantleMedia ( Idols, X-Factor). It was launched on Discovery Network’s TVNorge channel in Norway during spring this year. Now, two seasons of 13 episodes each has been commissioned by Dubai Media Group’s Dubai TV for airing in 22 territories in 2018. In each episode of Lost in Time, three contestants work together to increase the prize pot before they go head-tohead in a winner-take-all final, while a lucky player at home wins the same cash prize.
For TV contestants, the action takes place in a green-screen studio, where all physical props and cameras are connected to Frontier. While the contestants are driving, shooting, solving
[Adult Swim exec VP],” note Senreich. “We then made the pilot at Stoopid Buddy, and it’s been a blast since then.”
Wysol’s wild creativity is one of huge reasons that the show stands out from similar animated fare, says Senreich. “He does a lot of the animation, even the music … he would work on one sequence, then he’d go back and fix it. Brian has a different kind of sensibility than the rest of us: He’s a real renaissance man. The show is the perfect combination of Rick and Morty and Robot Chicken in a way. It has the fast-paced jokes of Robot Chicken with the character definition of R&M. You think you know where the show is going in the first ‘Don’t be afraid to create your own content. Even if it’s not good at first, you should keep going, make something else and strive to get better.’
“There are so many cool shows out there,” says Wysol. “There are some great series on Adult Swim and Cartoon Network. I also love anime, and we’re seeing so many amazing things coming from Japan. There are shows like BoJack Horseman that is doing something ‘You think you know where the show is going in the first 10 seconds, but then it jumps to other things and takes you to a completely different place!’
dile, Rick, and the baddies Master Frown and Brock) have very distinct personalities of their own, so it makes it really fun to watch them match up against Unikitty’s character.”
Skudder says he especially likes the Toaster and Toast characters. “They started as a oneoff gag and have turned into total staples of the show,” he explains. “They’re in tons of episodes and almost always just yell, ‘OOHHH!!!’ I also really like Hype Bot. He’s so annoying — and sooo cool!” Wang says her favorite incidental is a character called FeeBee. “She’s a mix between a bee and a flower — and she’s possibly crazier than Unikitty!” Lots of Kitty to Go Around Unikitty! fans will be happy to know that the first order of the show is for 80 11-minute episodes.The show’s pre- and post-production work is done in Burbank by Warner Bros. Animation. “We’re mostly a script-driven show, and we work with our directors, storyboard artists and editors to punch up jokes, story points and dialogue, whatever it may need as we see the episode evolve,” note the producers. “The final animatic and all our designs are sent overseas to the Philippines, where the very talented team at Snipple Animation Studios provide our animation. Our amazing in-house animation crew, led by Anna Hollingsworth, does additional design, animation and compositing work to finish each episode off.”
Skudder and Wang are quick to mention the importance of their favorite animated films and TV shows on their personal style and artistic growth. “I grew up loving Bruce Timm’s Batman: The Animated Series,” says Skudder. “I watched it every single day after school and it really inspired me to pursue art and story-
Results in Descending Order 50 to 35: You are a valuable employee! You are doing a great job fulfilling your role as an employee and are right where you should be, which is providing a valuable service to your company. 45 to 15: You are a great employee with potential for advancement and leadership. 15 to -19: You are very well suited to lead others in your full-time employee environment and have a good chance at continuing to
Should you choose to venture out on your own, whether as an independent professional or the founder of a full-fledged animation studio, you must ooze entrepreneur and innovator traits from all your pores. The very same traits, mindset and determination that will make you a successful business owner are the same ones that are needed to make you a successful independent professional.
On the other hand, if you are perfectly content (if not thrilled) to remain an employee for the remainder of your career, you should still
would try and move towards a better solution. Being both the director and writer, Rian knew not only how to visually show something, but also how to write the story and characters in such a way that complemented the visuals.” Battles That Up the Ante Previs was primarily used to visualize the action, but also for the development of the story. “Rian knew what he wanted story-wise and
ed with celebrated paper engineer David Hawcock, who built the mock-ups for these book pages.
The opening was physically shot in Gruber’s Antiques shop. “The camera moves needed to be graceful and tie into the folds of each of the page turns, following the bears as they explore their paper environment,” explains Kind. Deep compositing was used to add Paddington and Aunt Lucy into the complex layering of the CG scene. This was then composited over a Nuke-projected sky illustration. “We wanted a hand-painted texture. We did about 1,500 frames for this 30-sec- ond sequence.”
Kind, who fondly recalls the Filmfair/ BBC Paddington Bear series which aired on TV in the 1970s, says it’s wonderful to see the property’s simplicity and kindness come to the big screen once again. “I think people respond to that gentle spirit, which has no cynicism,” he notes. “As I look back, I am happiest most about delivering shots that are generally more complex and larger in ambition that the first film, and yet Paddington still feels the same kind and courteous little bear we all know and love.”