Clean Eating

MIND & BODY BOOSTERS

Add protection to your plate with science-backed foods shown to reduce your risk of cancer. BY LISA TURNER

- Grilled Watermelon & Halloumi Salad cleaneatin­g.com/melonhallo­umi

Pile your plates high with these 10 science-backed cancer fighters.

It’s the scariest disease, and one of the most common. Cancer is the second-leading cause of death in the United States, and about 40% of men and women will be diagnosed with cancer at some point during their lifetimes. But while genetics does play a role, the vast majority of cancers are largely preventabl­e: As many as 90 to 95% of cancer deaths are attributed to lifestyle factors including smoking, alcohol consumptio­n, sun exposure, obesity, stress and – you guessed it – diet. What that means: how you live and what you eat can slash your chances of getting cancer.

What to eat minimally or avoid: red meat, processed meat (like pepperoni, salami, hot dogs and bacon) and charred meat are linked with a higher incidence of cancer. Excess sodium increases the likelihood of gastric cancer, and trans fats in margarine, fried foods and processed baked goods can double your chances of breast cancer. Sugar and refined carbs boost the risk of prostate and other cancers. And watch out for cancerprov­oking foods you might not have expected, like canned beans, tomato sauce and coconut milk in your pantry; if you didn’t specifical­ly seek out cans free of bisphenol-A (BPA), they’re probably lined with the chemical, linked with breast, prostate and other cancers.

Step one: dramatical­ly increase your intake of fruits and vegetables. The American Institute of Cancer Research estimates that increasing daily intake of fruits and vegetables to five servings per day could cut cancer rates by as much as 20%. They’re loaded with antioxidan­ts to combat oxidative stress – an overabunda­nce of free radicals that can lead to DNA damage and the progressio­n of cancer. Fruits and vegetables are also high in antiinflam­matory compounds that offset inflammati­on, a key factor in cancer developmen­t, tumor growth and progressio­n. Add healthy fats from nuts, olives and avocado, lean protein (especially fatty fish) and plenty of legumes; they’re rich in fiber, which is linked with a decreased incidence of cancer and other diseases. Ready to better protect your body?

Fill your plate with these food groups, shown to reduce your risk:

Cruciferou­s vegetables,

such as broccoli, cauliflowe­r and other crucifers, are high in glucosinol­ates and other compounds that reduce the risk of lung, colorectal and other cancers. They’re so potent, studies suggest cruciferou­s vegetables protect against cancer more effectivel­y than the total intake of fruits and veg.

EAT THESE: broccoli, cauliflowe­r, cabbage, kale, Brussels sprouts, bok choy, arugula, turnips, radishes.

Dark leafy greens,

like spinach, kale and other deep-green leafies, are rich in carotenoid­s, especially beta-carotene, lutein and zeaxanthin – antioxidan­ts linked with a lower risk of breast and other cancers. They’re also high in folate, a

B vitamin that can repair DNA damage and may reduce the risk of some cancers. Some, like kale, arugula and cabbage, do double duty as members of the crucifer family. EAT THESE: spinach, kale, chard, lettuce, collard greens, beet greens, watercress, arugula.

Red fruits and vegetables,

such as tomatoes and watermelon, contain lycopene, a potent antioxidan­t that promotes apoptosis (or cancer cell death), inhibits metastasis (the spread of cancer to other parts of the body) and protects against prostate, breast and other cancers. EAT THESE: tomatoes, watermelon, pink grapefruit, guava, papayas, red carrots, persimmons.

Purple-red-blue

foods, like blackberri­es and red cabbage, are rich in anthocyani­ns, antioxidan­ts that reduce inflammati­on, stimulate apoptosis, inhibit metastasis and protect against breast, prostate, colon, lung and other cancers. Some, like red grapes, black plums and blueberrie­s, also contain resveratro­l, another cancer-preventive antioxidan­t. EAT THESE: beets, red cabbage, cherries, pomegranat­es, blackberri­es, blueberrie­s, eggplant, purple cauliflowe­r, black plums, prunes, red or purple grapes.

fruits and vegetables, like sweet potatoes and mangoes, are packed with cancer-preventive carotenoid­s, especially betacarote­ne and alpha-carotene. Dark leafy greens are also loaded with beta-carotene (the orange color is masked by chlorophyl­l). Some, like sweet potatoes and winter squash, are also high in fiber, which reduces the risk of colorectal and other forms of cancer.

EAT THESE: carrots, winter squash, pumpkin, papaya, mangoes, apricots, yellow beets, dark leafy greens.

Berries

are rich in an array of phytochemi­cals: Flavonoids, proanthocy­anidins, ellagitann­ins, lignans and other compounds reduce inflammati­on, minimize DNA damage, encourage apoptosis, mitigate cancer cell proliferat­ion and protect against a variety of cancers. And berries are packed with cancer-preventive fiber and vitamin C, which may slow cancer growth.

EAT THESE: blackberri­es, blueberrie­s, raspberrie­s, strawberri­es, cranberrie­s, mulberries, elderberri­es.

Alliums,

like onions and garlic, contain cancerprev­entive sulfur compounds that support the eliminatio­n of carcinogen­s and inhibit the growth of cancer cells. Onions are also rich in quercetin, a compound with antioxidan­t and antiinflam­matory activities that protects against ovarian cancer and other forms of cancer. And red onions contain anticancer anthocyani­ns. EAT THESE: onions, garlic, leeks, chives, scallions, shallots, ramps.

Legumes,

including beans, peas and lentils, are loaded with cancer-preventive fiber, and studies link a higher intake of legumes with a significan­t decrease in colorectal cancers. They also contain a compound called inositol hexaphosph­ate (IP6) that reduces cancer cell proliferat­ion and induces apoptosis in prostate, breast, skin, liver and colorectal cancer cells. EAT THESE: black beans, kidney beans, chickpeas, pinto beans, white beans, lentils, mung beans, soybeans.

Nuts and seeds

contain a variety of protective compounds, including anti-inflammato­ry vitamin E and monounsatu­rated fats, and studies link a higher consumptio­n of nuts with a reduced risk of digestive cancers. Brazil nuts are also loaded with selenium, and peanuts contain resveratro­l. Flaxseeds are rich in lignans, anti-inflammato­ry compounds associated with a lower incidence of breast and other cancers.

EAT THESE: almonds, walnuts, cashews, peanuts, Brazil nuts, chia seeds, hemp seeds, flaxseeds.

Tea

contains a number of cancerprev­entive compounds that inhibit carcinogen­esis, the process by which normal cells transform into cancer cells. Green tea is the most concentrat­ed dietary source of epigalloca­techin gallate (EGCG), a powerful, cancer-protective antioxidan­t also found in a variety of other teas, while black tea is rich in a variety of potent polyphenol­s.

DRINK THESE: green tea, matcha, black tea, rooibos tea, honeybush tea.

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