GLOS­SARY

EQUUS - - Contents -

Words fol­lowed by this sym­bol are de­fined here

an­thrax--- po­ten­tially fa­tal in­fec­tious dis­ease char­ac­ter­ized by fever, throat swelling and en­larged spleen; now rare in horses. anti­gen--- sub­stance, of­ten a pro­tein, that the body’s im­mune sys­tem rec­og­nizes as for­eign and re­acts to by pro­duc­ing an an­ti­body. arthri­tis--- in­flam­ma­tion of a joint. ataxia--- in­co­or­di­na­tion of the mus­cles, which re­sults in shaky, ir­reg­u­lar move­ments; may also be ac­com­pa­nied by weak­ness and loss of pro­pri­o­cep­tion. bot­u­lism--- food poi­son­ing caused by the toxin se­creted by Clostrid­ium bo­tulinum bac­te­ria, which can con­tam­i­nate feed or wa­ter; char­ac­ter­ized by paral­y­sis, be­gin­ning with the mus­cles of swal­low­ing; usu­ally fa­tal. choke--- in horses, ob­struc­tion of the esoph­a­gus; in peo­ple, ob­struc­tion of the wind­pipe (tra­chea). dis­united can­ter--- oc­curs when a horse’s gait is not syn­chro­nized cor­rectly, mov­ing on one lead in the front legs and the other in the hind legs. elec­trolytes--- sim­ple in­or­ganic com­pounds that dis­solve in wa­ter and are es­sen­tial for many of the chem­i­cal pro­cesses in the body. en­do­tox­emia--- pres­ence of spe­cific bac­te­rial poi­sons (en­do­tox­ins) in the blood; usu­ally caused by se­vere colic and re­sult­ing in shock and/or lamini­tis. equine her­pesvirus (EHV)--- a fam­ily of viruses that pri­mar­ily cause chronic res­pi­ra­tory in­fec- tions in horses (EHV-1, EHV-4). EHV-1 can also cause abor­tions in mares and, in rare cases, both EHV-1 and -4 can cause neu­ro­log­i­cal signs, in­clud­ing pro­gres­sive weak­ness and in­co­or­di­na­tion. EHV-3 causes a vene­real dis­ease called equine coital ex­an­thema. equine vi­ral ar­teri­tis--- res­pi­ra­tory and vene­real dis­ease that can cause abor­tion. fe­cal egg count--- lab­o­ra­tory pro­ce­dure for de­ter­min­ing the num­ber of in­ter­nal-par­a­site eggs in a fe­cal sam­ple; used pri­mar­ily to es­ti­mate a horse’s level of in­fec­tion with as­carids and/or strongyles. hyaluronic acid (HA)---mol­e­cule that forms the ba­sis of the lu­bri­cat­ing fluid within joints as well as con­nec­tive tis­sues through­out the body. hy­dro­cephalus--- ab­nor­mal amount of fluid be­neath the skull, re­sult­ing in an en­larged head, brain at­ro­phy and men­tal de­te­ri­o­ra­tion. in­fluenza--- acute vi­ral in­fec­tion in­volv­ing the res­pi­ra­tory tract. In­fluenza is marked by in­flam­ma­tion of the nasal mu­cosa, the phar­ynx, the con­junc­tiva, the lungs and some­times the heart mus­cle. in­sulin re­sis­tance--- meta­bolic disorder, sim­i­lar to type-2 di­a­betes, that oc­curs when cer­tain cells in the body be­come less sen­si­tive to the ac­tion of in­sulin, and nor­mal amounts of the hor­mone can no longer keep ad­e­quate amounts of glu­cose mov­ing into the cells for use as fuel. lamini­tis--- in­flam­ma­tion of the sen­si­tive plates of soft tis­sue (lam­i­nae) within the horse’s foot caused by phys­i­cal or phys­i­o­logic in­jury. Se­vere cases of lamini­tis may re­sult in founder, an in­ter­nal de­for­mity of the foot. Acute lamini­tis sets in rapidly and usu­ally re­sponds to ap­pro­pri­ate, in­ten­sive treat­ment, while chronic lamini­tis is a per­sis­tent, long-term con­di­tion that may be un­re­spon­sive to treat­ment. line­breed­ing--- breed­ing two re­lated in­di­vid­u­als, usu­ally at least two to three gen­er­a­tions re­moved, to in­ten­sify the in­her­i­tance from a par­tic­u­lar ances­tor. pi­tu­itary pars in­ter­me­dia dys­func­tion (PPID, Cush­ing’s dis­ease)---dis­ease caused when the cor­tex of the adrenal gland pro­duces ex­ces­sive amounts of hor­mones, in­clud­ing cor­ti­sol; signs in­clude per­sis­tent long hair, thin skin, frag­ile bones, stu­por, weak­ness and sweat­ing. poly­sul­fated gly­cosamino­gly­cans (PSGAGs)--joint-lu­bri­cat­ing sub­stances that are chem­i­cally sim­i­lar to the fluid-pro­duc­ing com­po­nents of car­ti­lage. When in­jected in­tra­mus­cu­larly or di­rectly into a joint, PSGAGs stim­u­late the pro­duc­tion of syn­ovial fluid. Po­tomac horse fever (mono­cytic ehrli­chio­sis) ---dis­ease caused by a rick­ettsial or­gan­ism, Ne­orick­ettsia ris­ticii. Named after the Po­tomac River Val­ley where it was first rec­og­nized in 1979, the dis­ease is char­ac­ter­ized by fever, di­ar­rhea and lamini­tis. stran­gles (dis­tem­per)---highly con­ta­gious in­fec­tion of the lymph nodes, usu­ally of the head, caused by Strep­to­coc­cus equi bac­te­ria. The ab­scesses may be­come so large as to ob­struct the air­way (hence the term “stran­gles”) and may break in­ter­nally, drain­ing a thick, yel­low pus through the nose, or ex­ter­nally, drain­ing through a spon­ta­neous or sur­gi­cal open­ing in the skin. windswept legs--- con­for­ma­tion ab­nor­mal­ity in which both legs (ei­ther the fore or the hind) are “bent” to the side in one di­rec­tion.

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