EQUUS - - Contents -

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an­tiox­i­dant--- sub­stance that in­hibits the chem­i­cal ad­di­tion of oxy­gen to another sub­stance. chon­droitin sul­fate--- a sul­fated gly­cosamino­gly­can, a large pro­tein mol­e­cule that is a con­stituent of con­nec­tive tis­sues and car­ti­lage; a common in­gre­di­ent in many joint sup­ple­ments. clostridia­l--- per­tain­ing to any of the 205 species of Clostrid­ium, a genus of anaer­o­bic bac­te­ria. Many pro­duce po­tent tox­ins that cause such di­verse dis­eases as tetanus, bot­u­lism and gas gan­grene. Some of th­ese anaer­o­bic bac­te­ria in­habit the soil and fe­ces. Cush­ing’s syn­drome (pi­tu­itary pars in­ter­me­dia dys­func­tion, PPID)---dis­ease caused when the cor­tex of the adrenal gland pro­duces ex­ces­sive amounts of hor­mones, in­clud­ing cor­ti­sol; signs in­clude per­sis­tent long hair, thin skin, frag­ile bones, stu­por, weak­ness and sweat­ing. deep dig­i­tal flexor--- deep­est mus­cle on the back of the fore­arm; con­nected to the cof­fin bone by the deep (dig­i­tal) flexor ten­don. de­vel­op­men­tal ortho­pe­dic dis­ease (DOD)--a gen­eral term used to de­scribe all skele­tal con­di­tions as­so­ci­ated with growth and de­vel­op­ment in foals, in­clud­ing os­teo­chon­dro­sis, ac­quired an­gu­lar limb de­for­mi­ties, sub­chon­dral bone cysts, physi­tis, flex­u­ral de­for­mi­ties, ver­te­bral de­for­mi­ties and de­for­mi­ties of the small bones of the hock and knees. DNA (de­oxyri­bonu­cleic acid)---large or­ganic mol­e­cule that con­sists of two chains of nu­cleo­tides wound around each other; the ma­te­rial of which genes are made. Genes are re­spon­si­ble for the in­di­vid­ual in­her­ited char­ac­ter­is­tics of liv­ing or­gan­isms. elec­trolytes--- sim­ple in­or­ganic com­pounds that dis­solve in wa­ter and are es­sen­tial for many of the chem­i­cal pro­cesses in the body. equine meta­bolic syn­drome--- en­docrine disorder char­ac­ter­ized by in­creased fat de­posits in spe­cific lo­ca­tions of the body or over­all obe­sity; in­sulin re­sis­tance, which leads to ab­nor­mally high lev­els of the hor­mone cir­cu­lat­ing in the blood­stream; and a pre­dis­po­si­tion to­ward lamini­tis in the ab­sence of other rec­og­nized causes. founder--- in­ter­nal de­for­mity of the foot re­sult­ing from ro­ta­tion of the cof­fin bone due to si­mul­ta­ne­ous de­tach­ment from the hoof wall and pull by the deep flexor ten­don and grav­ity. glu­cosamine--- a build­ing block of chon­droitin sul­fate, a com­po­nent of car­ti­lage, as well as hyaluronic acid, a com­po­nent of syn­ovial fluid. in­trac­arotid--- an in­jec­tion ad­min­is­tered into the carotid artery, the main artery run­ning along the horse’s wind­pipe at the un­der­side of the neck that sup­plies blood to the head. IRAP (in­ter­leukin-1 re­cep­tor an­tag­o­nist pro­tein)---ortho­pe­dic treat­ment that uses a con­cen­tra­tion of heal­ing pro­teins, drawn from the blood, to halt the dam­ag­ing cas­cade of in­flam­ma­tion in joints. lamini­tis--- in­flam­ma­tion of the sen­si­tive plates of soft tis­sue (lam­i­nae) within the horse’s foot caused by phys­i­cal or phys­i­o­logic in­jury. Se­vere cases of lamini­tis may re­sult in founder, an in­ter­nal de­for­mity of the foot. Acute lamini­tis sets in rapidly and usu­ally re­sponds to ap­pro­pri­ate, in­ten­sive treat­ment, while chronic lamini­tis is a per­sis­tent, longterm con­di­tion that may be un­re­spon­sive to treat­ment. lipids--- sev­eral non-wa­ter-sol­u­ble, fatty sub­stances that, to­gether with pro­tein and car­bo­hy­drates, com­pose the struc­tural ma­te­rial of cells; may serve as a fuel source in the body. necrotic--- con­tain­ing dead or dy­ing tis­sue. os­teo­chon­dri­tis dis­se­cans (OCD)---er­ror in bone for­ma­tion at the joint sur­face that sep­a­rates the car­ti­lage from un­der­ly­ing bone; may cause lame­ness that first ap­pears or wors­ens with work; a form of os­teo­chon­dri­tis. physi­tis (epi­physi­tis)---in­flam­ma­tion and swelling of the epi­phy­seal plates above and be­low the joints due to an in­crease in the plates’ car­ti­lage-cell pro­duc­tion or fail­ure of or­derly change to bone; as­so­ci­ated with ex­ces­sively rapid growth in young horses. sand colic--- ab­dom­i­nal pain re­sult­ing from an ac­cu­mu­la­tion of sand in the large in­tes­tine. scratches--- scabby and/or ooz­ing skin in­flam­ma­tion on the back of the pastern above the heels; equiv­a­lent to chapped hands in peo­ple. ty­ing up (re­cur­rent ex­er­tional rhab­domy­ol­y­sis, azo­turia, Mon­day-morn­ing sick­ness, myosi­tis)---se­vere, painful cramp­ing of large mus­cle masses, re­sult­ing in dis­col­oration of the urine with the byprod­ucts of mus­cle de­struc­tion. Ty­ing up of­ten is seen in fit horses who re­sume heavy ex­er­cise after a few days of rest with­out any re­duc­tion in grain ra­tion.

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