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antioxidant--- substance that inhibits the chemical addition of oxygen to another substance. chondroitin sulfate--- a sulfated glycosaminoglycan, a large protein molecule that is a constituent of connective tissues and cartilage; a common ingredient in many joint supplements. clostridial--- pertaining to any of the 205 species of Clostridium, a genus of anaerobic bacteria. Many produce potent toxins that cause such diverse diseases as tetanus, botulism and gas gangrene. Some of these anaerobic bacteria inhabit the soil and feces. Cushing’s syndrome (pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction, PPID)---disease caused when the cortex of the adrenal gland produces excessive amounts of hormones, including cortisol; signs include persistent long hair, thin skin, fragile bones, stupor, weakness and sweating. deep digital flexor--- deepest muscle on the back of the forearm; connected to the coffin bone by the deep (digital) flexor tendon. developmental orthopedic disease (DOD)--a general term used to describe all skeletal conditions associated with growth and development in foals, including osteochondrosis, acquired angular limb deformities, subchondral bone cysts, physitis, flexural deformities, vertebral deformities and deformities of the small bones of the hock and knees. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)---large organic molecule that consists of two chains of nucleotides wound around each other; the material of which genes are made. Genes are responsible for the individual inherited characteristics of living organisms. electrolytes--- simple inorganic compounds that dissolve in water and are essential for many of the chemical processes in the body. equine metabolic syndrome--- endocrine disorder characterized by increased fat deposits in specific locations of the body or overall obesity; insulin resistance, which leads to abnormally high levels of the hormone circulating in the bloodstream; and a predisposition toward laminitis in the absence of other recognized causes. founder--- internal deformity of the foot resulting from rotation of the coffin bone due to simultaneous detachment from the hoof wall and pull by the deep flexor tendon and gravity. glucosamine--- a building block of chondroitin sulfate, a component of cartilage, as well as hyaluronic acid, a component of synovial fluid. intracarotid--- an injection administered into the carotid artery, the main artery running along the horse’s windpipe at the underside of the neck that supplies blood to the head. IRAP (interleukin-1 receptor antagonist protein)---orthopedic treatment that uses a concentration of healing proteins, drawn from the blood, to halt the damaging cascade of inflammation in joints. laminitis--- inflammation of the sensitive plates of soft tissue (laminae) within the horse’s foot caused by physical or physiologic injury. Severe cases of laminitis may result in founder, an internal deformity of the foot. Acute laminitis sets in rapidly and usually responds to appropriate, intensive treatment, while chronic laminitis is a persistent, longterm condition that may be unresponsive to treatment. lipids--- several non-water-soluble, fatty substances that, together with protein and carbohydrates, compose the structural material of cells; may serve as a fuel source in the body. necrotic--- containing dead or dying tissue. osteochondritis dissecans (OCD)---error in bone formation at the joint surface that separates the cartilage from underlying bone; may cause lameness that first appears or worsens with work; a form of osteochondritis. physitis (epiphysitis)---inflammation and swelling of the epiphyseal plates above and below the joints due to an increase in the plates’ cartilage-cell production or failure of orderly change to bone; associated with excessively rapid growth in young horses. sand colic--- abdominal pain resulting from an accumulation of sand in the large intestine. scratches--- scabby and/or oozing skin inflammation on the back of the pastern above the heels; equivalent to chapped hands in people. tying up (recurrent exertional rhabdomyolysis, azoturia, Monday-morning sickness, myositis)---severe, painful cramping of large muscle masses, resulting in discoloration of the urine with the byproducts of muscle destruction. Tying up often is seen in fit horses who resume heavy exercise after a few days of rest without any reduction in grain ration.