Words fol­lowed by this sym­bol 0 are de­fined here

EQUUS - - Contents -

aque­ous hu­mor--- fluid be­tween the lens and the cornea of the eye; lu­bri­cates the iris and reg­u­lates pres­sure within the eye­ball.

Calo­rie (Cal)---a kilo­calo­rie, the ba­sic unit used to mea­sure the en­ergy con­tent in equine food. The cap­i­tal C is used to dis­tin­guish the term from the true calo­rie, which is the amount of en­ergy it takes to raise one gram of wa­ter to one de­gree Cel­sius. In hu­man nu­tri­tion, the term “Calo­rie” com­monly is used to re­fer to kilo­calo­ries (Kcal). There are 1,000 calo­ries in a kilo­calo­rie and 1,000 kilo­calo­ries in a megacalo­rie.

choroid--- layer of the eye­ball con­tain­ing blood ves­sels.

Cog­gins test--- lab­o­ra­tory blood test for the pres­ence of an­ti­bod­ies against the equine in­fec­tious ane­mia (EIA) virus.

con­cre­tion--- solid, rock­like mass formed by suc­ces­sive lay­ers of min­eral de­posits form­ing over a cen­tral ob­ject (nidus).

cornea--- trans­par­ent mem­brane form­ing the front part of the eye­ball. Light passes through the cornea to the lens.

DNA (de­oxyri­bonu­cleic acid)---large or­ganic mol­e­cule that con­sists of two chains of nu­cleo­tides wound around each other; the ma­te­rial of which genes are made. Genes are re­spon­si­ble for the in­di­vid­ual in­her­ited char­ac­ter­is­tics of liv­ing or­gan­isms. dor­sal--- to­ward the sur­face of the back.

equine meta­bolic syn­drome--- en­docrine

disorder char­ac­ter­ized by in­creased fat de­posits in spe­cific lo­ca­tions of the body or over­all obe­sity; in­sulin re­sis­tance, which leads to ab­nor­mally high lev­els of the hor­mone cir­cu­lat­ing in the blood­stream; and a pre­dis­po­si­tion to­ward lamini­tis in the ab­sence of other rec­og­nized causes.

fe­cal egg count--- lab­o­ra­tory pro­ce­dure for de­ter­min­ing the num­ber of in­ter­nal-par­a­site eggs in a fe­cal sam­ple; used pri­mar­ily to es­ti­mate a horse’s level of in­fec­tion with as­carids and/or strongyles. hered­i­tary equine re­gional der­mal as

the­nia (HERDA)---in­her­ited disorder char­ac­ter­ized by weak­ened con­nec­tive tis­sue through­out the body but most no­tice­ably in the skin. HERDA is found only in Quar­ter Horses and re­lated stock breeds, es­pe­cially in sev­eral lines of prom­i­nent cut­ting horses.

in­sulin re­sis­tance--- meta­bolic disorder, sim­i­lar to type-2 di­a­betes, that oc­curs when cer­tain cells in the body be­come less sen­si­tive to the ac­tion of in­sulin, and nor­mal amounts of the hor­mone can no longer keep ad­e­quate amounts of glu­cose mov­ing into the cells for use as fuel.

iris--- pig­mented, mus­cu­lar eye struc­ture lo­cated be­hind the cornea; di­lates and con­tracts the pupil to reg­u­late the amount of light reach­ing the retina.

lamini­tis--- in­flam­ma­tion of the sen­si­tive plates of soft tis­sue (lam­i­nae) within the horse’s foot caused by phys­i­cal or phys­i­o­logic in­jury. Se­vere cases of lamini­tis may re­sult in founder, an in­ter­nal de­for­mity of the foot. Acute lamini­tis sets in rapidly and usu­ally re­sponds to ap­pro­pri­ate, in­ten­sive treat-

ment, while chronic lamini­tis is a per­sis­tent, long-term con­di­tion that may be un­re­spon­sive to treat­ment.

lens--- trans­par­ent struc­ture in the eye, ly­ing be­hind the iris; fo­cuses light rays on the retina. The retina in turn trans­mits the light rays to the brain, where they are per­ceived as an im­age.

non­s­teroidal anti-in­flam­ma­tory drug (NSAID)---drug that con­tains no steroids and acts to re­duce heat and swelling.

pi­tu­itary pars in­ter­me­dia dys­func­tion (PPID, Cush­ing’s dis­ease)---dis­ease caused when the cor­tex of the adrenal gland pro­duces ex­ces­sive amounts of hor­mones, in­clud­ing cor­ti­sol; signs in­clude per­sis­tent long hair, thin skin, frag­ile bones, stu­por, weak­ness and sweat­ing.

poly­merase chain re­ac­tion (PCR)---a tech­nique which is used to am­plify the num­ber of copies of a spe­cific re­gion of DNA, in or­der to pro­duce enough DNA to be ad­e­quately tested. This tech­nique can be used to iden­tify, with a very high-prob­a­bil­ity, dis­ease-caus­ing viruses and/or bac­te­ria.

pupil--- dark open­ing in the cen­ter of the eye’s iris through which light passes to the lens.

retina--- mul­ti­lay­ered tis­sue at the back of the eye’s in­te­rior. Sen­sory cells in the retina con­vert light en­ergy to nerve im­pulses that are trans­mit­ted through the op­tic nerves to the brain’s vi­sion cen­ter.

sclera--- dense, fi­brous, opaque, white outer coat en­clos­ing all of the eye­ball ex­cept the por­tion cov­ered by the cornea.

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