Words followed by this symbol 0 are defined here
aqueous humor--- fluid between the lens and the cornea of the eye; lubricates the iris and regulates pressure within the eyeball.
Calorie (Cal)---a kilocalorie, the basic unit used to measure the energy content in equine food. The capital C is used to distinguish the term from the true calorie, which is the amount of energy it takes to raise one gram of water to one degree Celsius. In human nutrition, the term “Calorie” commonly is used to refer to kilocalories (Kcal). There are 1,000 calories in a kilocalorie and 1,000 kilocalories in a megacalorie.
choroid--- layer of the eyeball containing blood vessels.
Coggins test--- laboratory blood test for the presence of antibodies against the equine infectious anemia (EIA) virus.
concretion--- solid, rocklike mass formed by successive layers of mineral deposits forming over a central object (nidus).
cornea--- transparent membrane forming the front part of the eyeball. Light passes through the cornea to the lens.
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)---large organic molecule that consists of two chains of nucleotides wound around each other; the material of which genes are made. Genes are responsible for the individual inherited characteristics of living organisms. dorsal--- toward the surface of the back.
equine metabolic syndrome--- endocrine
disorder characterized by increased fat deposits in specific locations of the body or overall obesity; insulin resistance, which leads to abnormally high levels of the hormone circulating in the bloodstream; and a predisposition toward laminitis in the absence of other recognized causes.
fecal egg count--- laboratory procedure for determining the number of internal-parasite eggs in a fecal sample; used primarily to estimate a horse’s level of infection with ascarids and/or strongyles. hereditary equine regional dermal as
thenia (HERDA)---inherited disorder characterized by weakened connective tissue throughout the body but most noticeably in the skin. HERDA is found only in Quarter Horses and related stock breeds, especially in several lines of prominent cutting horses.
insulin resistance--- metabolic disorder, similar to type-2 diabetes, that occurs when certain cells in the body become less sensitive to the action of insulin, and normal amounts of the hormone can no longer keep adequate amounts of glucose moving into the cells for use as fuel.
iris--- pigmented, muscular eye structure located behind the cornea; dilates and contracts the pupil to regulate the amount of light reaching the retina.
laminitis--- inflammation of the sensitive plates of soft tissue (laminae) within the horse’s foot caused by physical or physiologic injury. Severe cases of laminitis may result in founder, an internal deformity of the foot. Acute laminitis sets in rapidly and usually responds to appropriate, intensive treat-
ment, while chronic laminitis is a persistent, long-term condition that may be unresponsive to treatment.
lens--- transparent structure in the eye, lying behind the iris; focuses light rays on the retina. The retina in turn transmits the light rays to the brain, where they are perceived as an image.
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)---drug that contains no steroids and acts to reduce heat and swelling.
pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID, Cushing’s disease)---disease caused when the cortex of the adrenal gland produces excessive amounts of hormones, including cortisol; signs include persistent long hair, thin skin, fragile bones, stupor, weakness and sweating.
polymerase chain reaction (PCR)---a technique which is used to amplify the number of copies of a specific region of DNA, in order to produce enough DNA to be adequately tested. This technique can be used to identify, with a very high-probability, disease-causing viruses and/or bacteria.
pupil--- dark opening in the center of the eye’s iris through which light passes to the lens.
retina--- multilayered tissue at the back of the eye’s interior. Sensory cells in the retina convert light energy to nerve impulses that are transmitted through the optic nerves to the brain’s vision center.
sclera--- dense, fibrous, opaque, white outer coat enclosing all of the eyeball except the portion covered by the cornea.