EQUUS - - Glossary -

anti­gen-an­ti­body re­ac­tion--- in­ter­ac­tion be­tween a for­eign sub­stance (anti­gen) and the body’s de­fen­sive pro­teins (an­ti­bod­ies). Bend Or spots--- ran­dom patches of darker color that ap­pear on the coats of some horses; named for the Bri­tish-born Thor­ough­bred stal­lion Bend Or (1877) who had mul­ti­ple spots, as did many of his prog­eny. Bird­catcher spots--- round white spots, gen­er­ally an inch or less in di­am­e­ter, that may ap­pear ran­domly on a dark coat. Named for the Ir­ish­born Thor­ough­bred stal­lion Bird­catcher (1833), the spots may not ap­pear un­til the horse is ma­ture, and they may van­ish over time. car­ti­lage--- spe­cial­ized type of fi­brous con­nec­tive tis­sue cov­er­ing bone ends at joints; also struc­tural ba­sis for the ears and nos­trils. dimethyl­sul­fox­ide (DMSO)---or­ganic chem­i­cal that has a num­ber of medic­i­nal prop­er­ties, in­clud­ing anti-in­flam­ma­tory, an­tibac­te­rial and anal­gesic; DMSO can pass read­ily through the skin. DNA (de­oxyri­bonu­cleic acid)---large or­ganic mol­e­cule that con­sists of two chains of nu­cleo­tides wound around each other; the ma­te­rial of which genes are made. Genes are re­spon­si­ble for the in­di­vid­ual in­her­ited char­ac­ter­is­tics of living or­gan­isms. en­do­scope--- small, flex­i­ble tube equipped with light and a view­ing de­vice; used to ex­am­ine or op­er­ate on body pas­sages or in­ter­nal or­gans. en­zyme--- any of the nu­mer­ous fa­cil­i­ta­tor pro­teins en­abling the build­ing up, al­ter­ing or break­ing down of other spe­cific sub­stances with which they in­ter­act. eosinophil--- type of white cell that in­creases in num­ber dur­ing cer­tain chronic in­fec­tions, al­ler­gies and par­a­sitic in­fes­ta­tions. equine meta­bolic syn­drome--- en­docrine dis­or­der char­ac­ter­ized by in­creased fat de­posits in spe­cific lo­ca­tions of the body or over­all obe­sity; in­sulin re­sis­tance, which leads to ab­nor­mally high lev­els of the hor­mone cir­cu­lat­ing in the blood stream; and a pre­dis­po­si­tion to­ward lamini­tis in the ab­sence of other rec­og­nized causes. fruc­tan--- nat­u­rally oc­cur­ring sugar that is a source of stored en­ergy for plants. Fruc­tan, along with glu­cose, fruc­tose, su­crose and starch, is a non­struc­tural car­bo­hy­drate found in grasses and feeds. in­sulin--- hor­mone se­creted by the pan­creas to con­trol blood sugar level and uti­liza­tion of sugar in the body. in­sulin re­sis­tance--- meta­bolic dis­or­der, sim­i­lar to type-2 di­a­betes, that oc­curs when cer­tain cells in the body be­come less sen­si­tive to the ac­tion of in­sulin, and nor­mal amounts of the hor­mone can no longer keep ad­e­quate amounts of glu­cose mov­ing into the cells for use as fuel. lamini­tis--- in­flam­ma­tion of the sen­si­tive plates of soft tis­sue (lam­i­nae) within the horse’s foot caused by phys­i­cal or phys­i­o­logic in­jury. Se­vere cases of lamini­tis may re­sult in founder, an in­ter­nal de­for­mity of the foot. Acute lamini­tis sets in rapidly and usu­ally re­sponds to ap­pro­pri­ate, in­ten­sive treat­ment, while chronic lamini­tis is a per­sis­tent, long-term con­di­tion that may be un­re­spon­sive to treat­ment. me­di­a­tors--- bio­chem­i­cals re­leased when in­jured tis­sue stim­u­lates the in­flam­ma­tory process. Ac­tions caused or aided by dif­fer­ent me­di­a­tors pro­duce swelling, heat, pain and, ul­ti­mately, heal­ing. MSM (methyl­sul­fonyl­methane)---sul­fur­con­tain­ing oral prepa­ra­tion that is a chem­i­cal frac­tion of dimethyl­sul­fox­ide (DMSO), an or­ganic sub­stance with anti-in­flam­ma­tory, an­tibac­te­rial and anal­gesic prop­er­ties; popular in the man­age­ment of ath­letic pain. non­s­teroidal anti-in­flam­ma­tory drug (NSAID)---drug that con­tains no steroids and acts to re­duce heat and swelling. oligofruc­tose--- a type of nat­u­rally oc­cur­ring sugar de­rived from plants. Over­doses of oligofruc­tose are used to in­duce lamini­tis in horses for use in re­search. pi­tu­itary pars in­ter­me­dia dys­func­tion (PPID, Cush­ing’s dis­ease)---dis­ease caused when the cor­tex of the adrenal gland pro­duces ex­ces­sive amounts of hor­mones, in­clud­ing cor­ti­sol; signs in­clude per­sis­tent long hair, thin skin, frag­ile bones, stu­por, weak­ness and sweat­ing. sesamoid bones (prox­i­mal sesamoids)--pyra­mid-shaped bones that form the back of the fet­lock joint and serve to im­prove sup­port­ing lever­age of flexor ten­dons that pass be­hind them; part of the sus­pen­sory ap­pa­ra­tus. tail fe­male line--- con­tin­u­ous ma­tri­ar­chal an­ces­try. titer--- mea­sure­ment of the con­cen­tra­tion of an an­ti­body in blood serum or other so­lu­tion. “High titer” refers to blood serum con­tain­ing high an­ti­body lev­els.

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