GLOS­SARY

EQUUS - - Equus -

Words fol­lowed by this sym­bol are de­fined here

an­ti­body--- dis­ease-fight­ing sub­stance pro­duced by the body in re­sponse to the pres­ence of an anti­gen. as­pi­ra­tion pneu­moni­tis--- lung in­flam­ma­tion due to an in­haled sub­stance such as food, drugs or mis­di­rected min­eral oil ad­min­is­tered to treat con­sti­pa­tion or choke. Banamine--- trade name of flu­nixin meg­lu­mine, a non­s­teroidal anti-in­flam­ma­tory drug used to con­trol in­flam­ma­tion and pain pri­mar­ily as­so­ci­ated with colic and mus­cle in­juries. dimethyl sul­fox­ide (DMSO)---or­ganic chem­i­cal that has a num­ber of medic­i­nal prop­er­ties, in­clud­ing anti-in­flam­ma­tory, an­tibac­te­rial and anal­gesic; DMSO can pass read­ily through the skin. DNA (de­oxyri­bonu­cleic acid)---large or­ganic mol­e­cule that con­sists of two chains of nu­cleo­tides wound around each other; the ma­te­rial of which genes are made. Genes are re­spon­si­ble for the in­di­vid­ual in­her­ited char­ac­ter­is­tics of living or­gan­isms. en­cephali­tis--- in­flam­ma­tion of the brain. en­teric--- per­tain­ing to the in­testines. ep­ithe­lium--- tis­sue layer cov­er­ing and/or lining in­ter­nal and ex­ter­nal body sur­faces. equine her­pesvirus (EHV)---a fam­ily of viruses that pri­mar­ily cause chronic re­s­pi­ra­tory in­fec­tions in horses (EHV-1, EHV-4). EHV-1 can also cause abor­tions in mares and, in rare cases, both EHV-1 and -4 can cause neu­ro­log­i­cal signs, in­clud­ing pro­gres­sive weak­ness and in­co­or­di­na­tion. EHV-3 causes a vene­real dis­ease called equine coital ex­an­thema. equine pro­to­zoal myeloen­cephali­tis (EPM)--in­flam­ma­tion of the brain and spinal cord caused by pro­to­zoal in­fec­tion. gene--- the fun­da­men­tal phys­i­cal and func­tional unit of hered­ity; an or­dered se­quence of nu­cleo­tides lo­cated in a par­tic­u­lar po­si­tion on a par­tic­u­lar chro­mo­some that en­codes a spe­cific func­tional prod­uct. gene ex­pres­sion--- process by which a gene’s coded in­for­ma­tion is con­verted into the struc­tures present and op­er­at­ing in the cell. in­flam­ma­tion--- re­sponse to in­jury, marked by cap­il­lary di­la­tion, red­ness, heat and pain, that re­moves harm­ful bac­te­ria and dam­aged tis­sue and ini­ti­ates the heal­ing process. in­fluenza--- acute vi­ral in­fec­tion in­volv­ing the re­s­pi­ra­tory tract. In­fluenza is marked by in­flam­ma­tion of the nasal mu­cosa, the phar­ynx, the con­junc­tiva, the lungs and some­times the heart mus­cle. in­sulin--- hor­mone se­creted by the pan­creas to con­trol blood sugar level and uti­liza­tion of sugar in the body. neo­pla­sia--- un­con­trolled pro­gres­sive pro­lif­er­a­tion of cells, as in the for­ma­tion of a tu­mor. phe­no­type--- phys­i­cal makeup and ap­pear­ance of an or­gan­ism as determined by its genes and en­vi­ron­ment; ex­pres­sion of a geno­type. plasma--- blood liq­uid that con­tains spe­cial­ized cells, such as platelets, and the pro­teins re­lated to clot­ting; ob­tained by cen­trifug­ing whole un­clot­ted blood to set­tle out the other cells. poly­merase chain re­ac­tion (PCR)---a tech­nique used to am­plify the num­ber of copies of a spe­cific re­gion of DNA, in or­der to pro­duce enough DNA to be ad­e­quately tested. This tech­nique can be used to iden­tify with a very high prob­a­bil­ity dis­ease­caus­ing viruses and/or bac­te­ria. sep­ticemia--- bac­te­rial in­fec­tion cir­cu­lat­ing through­out the blood­stream. shock­wave ther­apy (ex­tra­cor­po­real shock­wave ther­apy, ESWT)---non­in­va­sive treat­ment method that di­rects a tightly fo­cused beam of acous­tic pres­sure waves at tar­get ar­eas within the body. The waves pass read­ily through skin, fat and mus­cle and trans­fer their en­ergy at in­ter­faces be­tween tis­sues of a dif­fer­ent den­sity, such as car­ti­lage and bone. The ther­a­peu­tic benefits of ESWT are still un­der study, but the treat­ment has been shown to have an anal­gesic ef­fect. small strongyles--- any of 40 species of strongyles (round­worm par­a­sites) one cen­time­ter or less in length at ma­tu­rity that com­monly in­fect the in­testines of horses; thought to be less harm­ful than large strongyles, their lar­val mi­gra­tions are limited to the in­testi­nal walls. tape­worm--- flat, elon­gated, in­ter­nal par­a­site that in­fests the lower end of the small in­tes­tine af­ter a horse has in­gested eggs which have been de­vel­op­ing in an in­ter­me­di­ate host. tetanus--- rigid par­a­lytic dis­ease caused by Clostrid­ium te­tani, an anaer­o­bic bac­terium that lives in soil and fe­ces. tra­cheotomy--- in­ci­sion into the trachea through the skin and mus­cles of the neck. villi--- minute, slen­der, fin­ger­like pro­jec­tions of the small in­tes­tine’s mu­cous mem­brane that ab­sorb the fi­nal prod­ucts of di­ges­tion.

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