antibacterial--- drug or other substance that kills bacteria. antibiotic--- drug that interferes with the vital functions of bacteria; used to control or eliminate bacterial infection. bars--- on the bottom of a horse’s hoof, the continuations of the horny wall running forward from the heels between the sole and frog. biotin--- water-soluble vitamin of the B complex. borium--- crystals in soft steel tubing that may be melted and applied to the bottom of a horseshoe to improve traction, especially on pavement and frozen footing. buttress--- thickened angle at the heel of a horse’s hoof wall. coffin bone (pedal bone)---major bone within the hoof, shaped like a miniature hoof. congenital--- present from time of birth; not necessarily hereditary. corium--- tissue layer in the skin or its appendages (hoof, hair, etc.) from which growth occurs; rich in blood and nerve supply. coronary band (coronet)---boundary between the top of the hoof wall and the skin at the bottom of the pastern where hoof growth begins. digital cushion--- firm, spongy, wedge-shaped tissue mass filling the area between the frog and the deep digital flexor tendon. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)---large organic molecule that consists of two chains of nucleotides wound around each other; the material of which genes are made. Genes are responsible for the individual inherited characteristics of living organisms. electrolytes--- simple inorganic compounds that dissolve in water and are essential for many of the chemical processes in the body. endotoxemia--- presence of specific bacterial poisons (endotoxins) in the blood; usually caused by severe colic and resulting in shock and/or laminitis. fascia--- fibrous supportive tissue sheets beneath skin and between muscles. fecal egg count--- laboratory procedure for determining the number of internal-parasite eggs in a fecal sample; used primarily to estimate a horse’s level of infection with ascarids and/or strongyles. fibroblast--- a type of cell that secretes the proteins and collagens necessary for the growth and repair of connective tissue. frog--- wedge-shaped, soft horn structure in the rear of the underside of the hoof. hyperkalemic periodic paralysis (HYPP)--inherited muscle disorder of Quarter Horses and related stock-horse breeds that is characterized by muscle tremors, weakness and recumbency. Most cases are managed by diet and medication, but severe attacks can be fatal. laminae--- alternating “leaves” of flesh and hoof horn that bond the wall of the hoof to the underlying bone. micronutrients--- compounds essential in minute amounts to the growth and well-being of an animal.
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) ---drug that contains no steroids and acts to reduce heat and swelling. omentum--- loose, folded extension of the membrane covering the stomach. palpate--- to examine by touching. polymerase chain reaction (PCR)---a technique which is used to amplify the number of copies of a specific region of DNA, in order to produce enough DNA to be adequately tested. This technique can be used to identify, with a very high-probability, disease-causing viruses and/ or bacteria. poultice--- hot or cold substance applied to a body part to draw inflammation from the area or to alter temperature. recurrent airway obstruction (RAO)---respiratory disease, usually of older horses, induced by exposure to dusts typically found in stables. The disease is recurrent, depending on environmental exposure. The term “heaves” can also be used to describe RAO. shivers--- disease of horses characterized by trembling or quivering of various muscles. synovial membrane--- lining of tendon sheaths and joint capsules. tying up (recurrent exertional rhabdomyolysis, azoturia, Monday-morning sickness, myositis)--severe, painful cramping of large muscle masses, resulting in discoloration of the urine with the byproducts of muscle destruction. Tying up often is seen in fit horses who resume heavy exercise after a few days of rest without any reduction in grain ration. visceral--- pertaining to the large internal organs in the thoracic, abdominal and pelvic cavities. white line--- zone on the bottom of the horse’s hoof where the insensitive laminae and the interlaminar horn attach the wall to the margin of the sole.