GLOS­SARY

Words fol­lowed by this sym­bol are de­fined here

EQUUS - - Contents -

al­lele---

one of the al­ter­na­tive forms of any gene on a chro­mo­some. Each al­lele rep­re­sents a dif­fer­ent vari­a­tion of a phys­i­cal trait and each has one cor­re­spond­ing al­lele on the chro­mo­some’s paired coun­ter­part. For ex­am­ple, one blue-eye al­lele will have one cor­re­spond­ing al­lele that car­ries ei­ther a blue, green or brown-eye trait.

ane­mia---

short­age of red blood cells, com­monly caused by ex­ces­sive bleed­ing, in­fec­tion, di­etary de­fi­ciency or pres­ence of tox­ins in the body.

body con­di­tion score

(BCS)---a des­ig­na­tion, based on a nine-point nu­meric scale, in­di­cat­ing the amount of fat on a horse’s body. A BCS is as­signed af­ter a vis­ual and hands-on ap­praisal.

chro­mo­some---

the self-repli­cat­ing ge­netic struc­ture of cells con­tain­ing the cel­lu­lar DNA that bears in its nu­cleo­tide se­quence the lin­ear ar­ray of genes. Each species has a con­stant num­ber of chro­mo­somes set in pairs in the nu­cleus of each body cell; the horse has 64, or 32 pairs.

dom­i­nant---

per­tain­ing to a gene that guar­an­tees the ap­pear­ance of its trait in the off­spring, re­gard­less of the na­ture of the gene with which it is paired.

equine meta­bolic syn­drome---

en­docrine dis­or­der char­ac­ter­ized by in­creased fat de­posits in spe­cific lo­ca­tions of the body or over­all obe­sity; in­sulin re­sis­tance, which leads to ab­nor- mally high lev­els of the hor­mone cir­cu­lat­ing in the blood­stream; and a pre­dis­po­si­tion to­ward lamini­tis in the ab­sence of other rec­og­nized causes.

equine pro­to­zoal myeloen­cephali­tis

(EPM) ---in­flam­ma­tion of the brain and spinal cord caused by pro­to­zoal in­fec­tion.

in­sulin re­sis­tance---

meta­bolic dis­or­der, sim­i­lar to type-2 di­a­betes, that oc­curs when cer­tain cells in the body be­come less sen­si­tive to the ac­tion of in­sulin, and nor­mal amounts of the hor­mone can no longer keep ad­e­quate amounts of glu­cose mov­ing into the cells for use as fuel.

lamini­tis---

in­flam­ma­tion of the sen­si­tive plates of soft tis­sue (lam­i­nae) within the horse’s foot caused by phys­i­cal or phys­i­o­logic in­jury. Se­vere cases of lamini­tis may re­sult in founder, an in­ter­nal de­for­mity of the foot.

Acute lamini­tis sets in rapidly and usu­ally re­sponds to ap­pro­pri­ate, in­ten­sive treat­ment, while chronic lamini­tis is a per­sis­tent, longterm con­di­tion that may be un­re­spon­sive to treat­ment.

Lyme dis­ease---

po­ten­tially de­bil­i­tat­ing and even fa­tal bac­te­rial in­fec­tion spread by deer ticks (Ix­odes dammini), af­fect­ing peo­ple and do­mes­tic an­i­mals, in­clud­ing horses. Signs of in­fec­tion in horses in­clude lethargy, fever, swollen joints, shift­ing leg lame­ness, lamini­tis, oc­u­lar in­flam­ma­tion and hy­per­sen­si­tiv­ity of the skin and un­der­ly­ing mus­cle.

pi­tu­itary pars intermedia dys­func­tion

(PPID, Cush­ing’s dis­ease)---dis­ease caused when the cor­tex of the adrenal gland pro­duces ex­ces­sive amounts of hor­mones, in­clud­ing cor­ti­sol; signs in­clude per­sis­tent long hair, thin skin, frag­ile bones, stu­por, weak­ness and sweat­ing.

proud flesh---

ex­cess gran­u­la­tion tis­sue ris­ing out of and above the edges of a wound, form­ing a raw, ex­posed mound that makes fur­ther heal­ing de­layed or im­pos­si­ble with­out med­i­ca­tion or surgery.

re­ces­sive trait---

ge­netic trait that ap­pears only when both of its cor­re­spond­ing al­le­les are iden­ti­cal and in the ab­sence of its dom­i­nant coun­ter­part al­lele. For ex­am­ple, the re­ces­sive trait of blue eyes will ap­pear in per­sons only if both par­ents pass on blue-eye genes. Oth­er­wise, a dom­i­nant brown-eye gene will sub­or­di­nate the blue-eye and the off­spring will be brown-eyed.

se­b­or­rhea---

skin con­di­tion re­sult­ing from mal­func­tion of the oil-form­ing (se­ba­ceous) glands; can be char­ac­ter­ized by dry, waxy or ex­ces­sively oily ac­cu­mu­la­tions on the skin.

white cells

(leuko­cytes, white blood cells)--col­or­less blood cells ac­tive in the body’s de­fense against in­fec­tion or other as­sault. There are five types: neu­trophils, lym­pho­cytes, eosinophil­s, mono­cytes and ba­sophils.

white line---

zone on the bot­tom of the horse’s hoof where the in­sen­si­tive lam­i­nae and the in­ter­lam­i­nar horn at­tach the wall to the mar­gin of the sole.

white line dis­ease---

bac­te­rial and/or fun­gal in­fec­tion of the stra­tum medium, the mid­dle layer of the hoof wall; char­ac­ter­ized by a widened, de­pressed area with a pow­dery tex­ture along the white line, where the hoof wall meets the sole.

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