GLOS­SARY

EQUUS - - Equus -

Words fol­lowed by this sym­bol are de­fined here

body con­di­tion score (BCS)---a des­ig­na­tion, based on a nine-point nu­meric scale, in­di­cat­ing the amount of fat on a horse’s body. A BCS is as­signed af­ter a vis­ual and hands-on ap­praisal.

choke--- in horses, ob­struc­tion of the esoph­a­gus; in peo­ple, ob­struc­tion of the wind­pipe (tra­chea).

DNA (de­oxyri­bonu­cleic acid)---large or­ganic mol­e­cule that con­sists of two chains of nu­cleo­tides wound around each other; the ma­te­rial of which genes are made. Genes are re­spon­si­ble for the in­di­vid­ual in­her­ited char­ac­ter­is­tics of liv­ing or­gan­isms.

duo­de­num--- prox­i­mal por­tion of the small in­tes­tine, ex­tend­ing from the stom­ach to the je­junum.

en­do­scope--- small, flex­i­ble tube equipped with light and a view­ing de­vice; used to ex­am­ine or op­er­ate on body pas­sages or in­ter­nal or­gans.

ep­ithe­lium--- tis­sue layer cov­er­ing and/or lin­ing in­ter­nal and ex­ter­nal body sur­faces.

equine meta­bolic syn­drome (EMS)---en­docrine dis­or­der char­ac­ter­ized by in­creased fat de­posits in spe­cific lo­ca­tions of the body or over­all obe­sity; in­sulin re­sis­tance, which leads to ab­nor­mally high lev­els of the hor­mone cir­cu­lat­ing in the blood­stream; and a pre­dis­po­si­tion to­ward lamini­tis in the ab­sence of other rec­og­nized causes. hered­i­tary equine re­gional der­mal as­the­nia

(HERDA)---in­her­ited dis­or­der char­ac­ter­ized by weak­ened con­nec­tive tis­sue through­out the body but most no­tice­ably in the skin. HERDA is found only in Quar­ter Horses and re­lated stock breeds, es­pe­cially in sev­eral lines of promi­nent cut­ting horses.

in­sulin re­sis­tance--- meta­bolic dis­or­der, sim­i­lar to type-2 di­a­betes, that oc­curs when cer­tain cells in the body be­come less sen­si­tive to the ac­tion of in­sulin, and nor­mal amounts of the hor­mone can no longer keep ad­e­quate amounts of glu­cose mov­ing into the cells for use as fuel.

lamini­tis--- in­flam­ma­tion of the sen­si­tive plates of soft tis­sue (lam­i­nae) within the horse’s foot caused by phys­i­cal or phys­i­o­logic in­jury. Se­vere cases of lamini­tis may re­sult in founder, an in­ter­nal de­for­mity of the foot. Acute lamini­tis sets in rapidly and usu­ally re­sponds to ap­pro­pri­ate, in­ten­sive treat­ment, while chronic lamini­tis is a per­sis­tent, long-term con­di­tion that may be un­re­spon­sive to treat­ment.

lep­tospiro­sis--- sys­temic dis­ease caused by Lep­tospira or­gan­isms and char­ac­ter­ized by red-cell de­struc­tion, kid­ney dis­ease, in­flam­ma­tion of the eye­ball and, in preg­nant mares, abor­tion. Oc­curs spo­rad­i­cally in horses; com­mon in dogs and cat­tle.

pi­tu­itary pars in­ter­me­dia dys­func­tion (PPID, Cush­ing’s dis­ease)---dis­ease caused when the cor­tex of the adrenal gland pro­duces ex­ces­sive amounts of hor­mones, in­clud­ing cor­ti­sol; signs in­clude per­sis­tent long hair, thin skin, frag­ile bones, stu­por, weak­ness and sweat­ing.

poly­merase chain re­ac­tion (PCR)---a tech­nique which is used to am­plify the num­ber of copies of a spe­cific re­gion of DNA, in or­der to pro­duce enough DNA to be ad­e­quately tested.

This tech­nique can be used to iden­tify, with a very high-prob­a­bil­ity, dis­ease-caus­ing viruses and/or bac­te­ria.

polyp--- be­nign, nar­row-based fi­brous tu­mor grow­ing from the mem­brane lin­ing a body cav­ity.

proud flesh--- ex­cess gran­u­la­tion tis­sue ris­ing out of and above the edges of a wound, form­ing a raw, ex­posed mound that makes fur­ther heal­ing de­layed or im­pos­si­ble with­out med­i­ca­tion or surgery.

rain­rot (rain scald)---crusted, painful, in­fec­tious skin in­flam­ma­tion, caused by Der­matophilus con­golen­sis, which lifts the hair and re­moves it at its root, re­sult­ing in slip­ping away of af­fected ar­eas of the hair coat. Trig­gered by mois­ture.

sar­coid--- vi­ral tu­mor com­posed mainly of con­nec­tive tis­sue which ap­pears on the skin; the most com­mon tu­mor of the horse.

scratches--- scabby and/or ooz­ing skin in­flam­ma­tion on the back of the pastern above the heels; equiv­a­lent to chapped hands in peo­ple.

sep­ticemia--- bac­te­rial in­fec­tion cir­cu­lat­ing through­out the blood­stream.

stran­gles (dis­tem­per)---highly con­ta­gious in­fec­tion of the lymph nodes, usu­ally of the head, caused by Strep­to­coc­cus equi bac­te­ria. The ab­scesses may be­come so large as to ob­struct the air­way (hence the term “stran­gles”) and may break in­ter­nally, drain­ing a thick, yel­low pus through the nose, or ex­ter­nally, drain­ing through a spon­ta­neous or sur­gi­cal open­ing in the skin.

uveitis--- in­flam­ma­tion of the pig­mented struc­tures within the eye­ball.

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