GLOS­SARY

EQUUS - - Equus -

Words fol­lowed by this sym­bol 0 are de­fined here

al­ka­loid--- bit­ter, or­ganic-based sub­stance found in plants.

body con­di­tion score (BCS)---a des­ig­na­tion, based on a nine-point nu­meric scale, in­di­cat­ing the amount of fat on a horse’s body. A BCS is as­signed af­ter a vis­ual and hands-on ap­praisal.

car­bo­hy­drates--- large group of car­bon-based com­pounds, in­clud­ing starches, sug­ars and cel­lu­lose, that are found in plants and form the largest class of an­i­mal foods. Car­bo­hy­drates, to­gether with pro­teins and lipids, are prin­ci­pal com­po­nents of cell pro­to­plasm, the vis­cous fluid that fills plant and an­i­mal cells.

choke--- in horses, ob­struc­tion of the esoph­a­gus; in peo­ple, ob­struc­tion of the wind­pipe (tra­chea).

croup--- topline of hindquar­ters; rump. DNA (de­oxyri­bonu­cleic acid)---large or­ganic molecule that con­sists of two chains of nu­cleo­tides wound around each other; the ma­te­rial of which genes are made. Genes are re­spon­si­ble for the in­di­vid­ual in­her­ited char­ac­ter­is­tics of liv­ing or­gan­isms.

equine meta­bolic syn­drome (EMS)---en­docrine dis­or­der char­ac­ter­ized by in­creased fat de­posits in spe­cific lo­ca­tions of the body or over­all obe­sity; in­sulin re­sis­tance, which leads to ab­nor­mally high lev­els of the hor­mone cir­cu­lat­ing in the blood- stream; and a pre­dis­po­si­tion to­ward lamini­tis in the ab­sence of other rec­og­nized causes.

equine pro­to­zoal myeloen­cephali­tis (EPM)--in­flam­ma­tion of the brain and spinal cord caused by pro­to­zoal in­fec­tion. flu­nixin meg­lu­mine--- generic name for a non­s­teroidal anti-in­flam­ma­tory pain re­liever com­monly given for colic, eye pain or gen­er­al­ized body dis­com­fort.

hyaluronic acid (HA)---molecule that forms the ba­sis of the lu­bri­cat­ing fluid within joints as well as con­nec­tive tis­sues through­out the body.

in­sulin re­sis­tance--- meta­bolic dis­or­der, sim­i­lar to type 2 di­a­betes, that oc­curs when cer­tain cells in the body be­come less sen­si­tive to the ac­tion of in­sulin, and nor­mal amounts of the hor­mone can no longer keep ad­e­quate amounts of glu­cose mov­ing into the cells for use as fuel.

lamini­tis--- in­flam­ma­tion of the sen­si­tive plates of soft tis­sue (lam­i­nae) within the horse’s foot caused by phys­i­cal or phys­i­o­logic in­jury. Se­vere cases of lamini­tis may re­sult in founder, an in­ter­nal de­for­mity of the foot. Acute lamini­tis sets in rapidly and usu­ally re­sponds to ap­pro­pri­ate, in­ten­sive treat­ment, while chronic lamini­tis is a per­sis­tent, long-term con­di­tion that may be un­re­spon­sive to treat­ment.

lipids--- sev­eral non­wa­ter-sol­u­ble, fatty sub­stances that, to­gether with protein and car­bo­hy­drates, com­pose the struc­tural ma­te­rial of cells; may serve as a fuel source in the body.

mas­ti­tis--- in­flam­ma­tion of the ud­der.

non­s­teroidal anti-in­flam­ma­tory drug (NSAID) ---drug that con­tains no steroids and acts to re­duce heat and swelling.

overo--- pinto col­oration in which the white ar­eas orig­i­nate on the un­der­side of the horse and ex­tend up­ward in an ir­reg­u­lar de­sign.

phenylbu­ta­zone (“bute”)---generic name for an odor­less anti-in­flam­ma­tory med­i­ca­tion used in the man­age­ment of joint, bone and mus­cle in­juries or dis­or­ders.

protein--- large molecule com­posed of one or more chains of amino acids in a spe­cific or­der. Pro­teins are re­quired for the struc­ture, func­tion and reg­u­la­tion of the body’s cells, tis­sues and or­gans, and each protein has unique func­tions. Sim­ple pro­teins con­sist only of amino acids. Con­ju­gated pro­teins con­sist of amino acids joined to other com­plex mol­e­cules. De­rived pro­teins are the prod­ucts of chem­i­cal changes to other pro­teins.

tail fe­male line--- con­tin­u­ous ma­tri­ar­chal an­ces­try. thi­amine (thi­amine hy­drochlo­ride; vi­ta­min B1)--B-com­plex vi­ta­min found in grains, yeast and meat, and made syn­thet­i­cally from rice pol­ish­ings or yeast; nec­es­sary to the body for me­tab­o­liz­ing car­bo­hy­drates; oc­ca­sion­ally used for its pur­ported calm­ing ef­fect when ad­min­is­tered in high doses.

toxin--- poi­sonous sub­stance pro­duced by a liv­ing or­gan­ism.

West Nile virus--- fla­vivirus trans­mit­ted by mos­qui­toes. West Nile virus can in­fect birds, horses, hu­mans and other mam­mals. In horses as in peo­ple, in­fec­tion with the virus usu­ally causes lit­tle or no ill­ness. For rea­sons not yet de­ter­mined, how­ever, West Nile in­fec­tion some­times trig­gers swelling of the brain (en­cephali­tis) that pro­duces limb weak­ness, mus­cle fas­ci­c­u­la­tion (twitch­ing), in­co­or­di­na­tion, be­hav­ioral changes, paral­y­sis and re­cum­bency. In se­vere cases, West Nile en­cephali­tis can lead to coma and death.

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