Words followed by this symbol 0 are defined here
alkaloid--- bitter, organic-based substance found in plants.
body condition score (BCS)---a designation, based on a nine-point numeric scale, indicating the amount of fat on a horse’s body. A BCS is assigned after a visual and hands-on appraisal.
carbohydrates--- large group of carbon-based compounds, including starches, sugars and cellulose, that are found in plants and form the largest class of animal foods. Carbohydrates, together with proteins and lipids, are principal components of cell protoplasm, the viscous fluid that fills plant and animal cells.
choke--- in horses, obstruction of the esophagus; in people, obstruction of the windpipe (trachea).
croup--- topline of hindquarters; rump. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)---large organic molecule that consists of two chains of nucleotides wound around each other; the material of which genes are made. Genes are responsible for the individual inherited characteristics of living organisms.
equine metabolic syndrome (EMS)---endocrine disorder characterized by increased fat deposits in specific locations of the body or overall obesity; insulin resistance, which leads to abnormally high levels of the hormone circulating in the blood- stream; and a predisposition toward laminitis in the absence of other recognized causes.
equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM)--inflammation of the brain and spinal cord caused by protozoal infection. flunixin meglumine--- generic name for a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory pain reliever commonly given for colic, eye pain or generalized body discomfort.
hyaluronic acid (HA)---molecule that forms the basis of the lubricating fluid within joints as well as connective tissues throughout the body.
insulin resistance--- metabolic disorder, similar to type 2 diabetes, that occurs when certain cells in the body become less sensitive to the action of insulin, and normal amounts of the hormone can no longer keep adequate amounts of glucose moving into the cells for use as fuel.
laminitis--- inflammation of the sensitive plates of soft tissue (laminae) within the horse’s foot caused by physical or physiologic injury. Severe cases of laminitis may result in founder, an internal deformity of the foot. Acute laminitis sets in rapidly and usually responds to appropriate, intensive treatment, while chronic laminitis is a persistent, long-term condition that may be unresponsive to treatment.
lipids--- several nonwater-soluble, fatty substances that, together with protein and carbohydrates, compose the structural material of cells; may serve as a fuel source in the body.
mastitis--- inflammation of the udder.
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) ---drug that contains no steroids and acts to reduce heat and swelling.
overo--- pinto coloration in which the white areas originate on the underside of the horse and extend upward in an irregular design.
phenylbutazone (“bute”)---generic name for an odorless anti-inflammatory medication used in the management of joint, bone and muscle injuries or disorders.
protein--- large molecule composed of one or more chains of amino acids in a specific order. Proteins are required for the structure, function and regulation of the body’s cells, tissues and organs, and each protein has unique functions. Simple proteins consist only of amino acids. Conjugated proteins consist of amino acids joined to other complex molecules. Derived proteins are the products of chemical changes to other proteins.
tail female line--- continuous matriarchal ancestry. thiamine (thiamine hydrochloride; vitamin B1)--B-complex vitamin found in grains, yeast and meat, and made synthetically from rice polishings or yeast; necessary to the body for metabolizing carbohydrates; occasionally used for its purported calming effect when administered in high doses.
toxin--- poisonous substance produced by a living organism.
West Nile virus--- flavivirus transmitted by mosquitoes. West Nile virus can infect birds, horses, humans and other mammals. In horses as in people, infection with the virus usually causes little or no illness. For reasons not yet determined, however, West Nile infection sometimes triggers swelling of the brain (encephalitis) that produces limb weakness, muscle fasciculation (twitching), incoordination, behavioral changes, paralysis and recumbency. In severe cases, West Nile encephalitis can lead to coma and death.