GLOSSARY

EQUUS - - Equus -

Words fol­lowed by this sym­bol 0 are de­fined here

an­ti­body--- dis­ease-fight­ing sub­stance pro­duced by the body in re­sponse to the pres­ence of an anti­gen. ax­ial--- per­tain­ing to an axis or to mo­tion around an axis. body con­di­tion score (BCS)---a des­ig­na­tion, based on a nine-point nu­meric scale, in­di­cat­ing the amount of fat on a horse’s body. A BCS is as­signed af­ter a vis­ual and hands-on ap­praisal. deep dig­i­tal flexor ten­don--- ten­don con­nect­ing the deep mus­cles at the back of the fore­arm and gaskin to the cof­fin bone in the foot. DNA (de­oxyri­bonu­cleic acid)---large or­ganic mol­e­cule that con­sists of two chains of nu­cleo­tides wound around each other; the ma­te­rial of which genes are made. Genes are re­spon­si­ble for the in­di­vid­ual in­her­ited char­ac­ter­is­tics of liv­ing or­gan­isms. equine her­pesvirus (EHV)--- a fam­ily of viruses that pri­mar­ily cause chronic res­pi­ra­tory in­fec­tions in horses (EHV-1, EHV-4). EHV1 can also cause abor­tions in mares and, in rare cases, both EHV-1 and -4 can cause neu­ro­log­i­cal signs, in­clud­ing pro­gres­sive weak­ness and in­co­or­di­na­tion. EHV-3 causes a vene­real dis­ease called equine coital ex­an­thema. equine meta­bolic syn­drome (EMS)--en­docrine dis­or­der char­ac­ter­ized by in­creased fat de­posits in spe­cific lo­ca­tions of the body or over­all obe­sity; in­sulin re­sis­tance, which leads to ab­nor­mally high lev­els of the hor­mone cir­cu­lat­ing in the blood­stream; and a pre­dis­po­si­tion to­ward lamini­tis in the ab­sence of other rec­og­nized causes. gene--- the fun­da­men­tal phys­i­cal and func­tional unit of hered­ity; an or­dered se­quence of nu­cleo­tides lo­cated in a par­tic­u­lar po­si­tion on a par­tic­u­lar chro­mo­some that en­codes a spe­cific func­tional prod­uct. glu­cose--- a car­bo­hy­drate, the prin­ci­pal form of sugar found in the blood; a source of en­ergy when me­tab­o­lized. in­sulin re­sis­tance--- meta­bolic dis­or­der, sim­i­lar to type 2 di­a­betes, that oc­curs when cer­tain cells in the body be­come less sen­si­tive to the ac­tion of in­sulin, and nor­mal amounts of the hor­mone can no longer keep ad­e­quate amounts of glu­cose mov­ing into the cells for use as fuel.

lamini­tis--- in­flam­ma­tion of the sen­si­tive plates of soft tissue (lam­i­nae) within the horse’s foot caused by phys­i­cal or physiologi­c in­jury. Se­vere cases of lamini­tis may re­sult in founder, an in­ter­nal de­for­mity of the foot. Acute lamini­tis sets in rapidly and usu­ally re­sponds to ap­pro­pri­ate, in­ten­sive treat­ment, while chronic lamini­tis is a per­sis­tent, long-term con­di­tion that may be un­re­spon­sive to treat­ment.

os­teo­chon­dri­tis (epi­physi­tis, os­teo­chon­dro­sis, sub­chon­dral cyst)---dis­tur­bance in the con­ver­sion of car­ti­lage to bone in the growth plates and/or joint sur­faces of the long bones of young, rapidly grow­ing an­i­mals; some­times causes lame­ness that first ap­pears or wors­ens with work.

pi­tu­itary pars in­ter­me­dia dys­func­tion (PPID, Cush­ing’s dis­ease)---dis­ease caused when the cor­tex of the adrenal gland pro­duces ex­ces­sive amounts of hor­mones, in­clud­ing cor­ti­sol; signs in­clude per­sis­tent long hair, thin skin, frag­ile bones, stu­por, weak­ness and sweat­ing. rain­rot (rain scald)---crusted, painful, in­fec­tious skin in­flam­ma­tion, caused by Der­matophilus con­golen­sis, which lifts the hair and re­moves it at its root, re­sult­ing in slip­ping away of af­fected areas of the hair coat. Trig­gered by mois­ture. spinous pro­cesses--- bony pro­tru­sions at the top of the ver­te­brae of the torso. sus­pen­sory ap­pa­ra­tus--- sling­like ar­range­ment of lig­a­ments and small bones that sup­port the fet­lock when the leg is weighted; includes the sus­pen­sory lig­a­ments, prox­i­mal sesamoid bones and in­fe­rior sesamoidea­n lig­a­ments. sus­pen­sory lig­a­ment--- strip of fi­brous tissue run­ning from the back of the up­per can­non bone over the fet­lock joint to the pastern bones. Pro­vides ma­jor sup­port for the fet­lock joint, pre­vent­ing it from sink­ing to the ground. titer--- mea­sure­ment of the con­cen­tra­tion of an an­ti­body in blood serum or other so­lu­tion. “High titer” refers to blood serum con­tain­ing high an­ti­body lev­els. trans­verse pro­cesses--- bony pro­tru­sions on each side of the ver­te­brae. ul­tra­sound--- high-fre­quency sound waves, above the range of hu­man hear­ing. Ul­tra­sound is used di­ag­nos­ti­cally, to im­age body struc­tures, and ther­a­peu­ti­cally, to break down un­wanted tissue and pro­mote heal­ing by stim­u­lat­ing cir­cu­la­tion.

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